IPC-E Newsletter: September 2002  
  Welcome to the August edition of the IPC e-newsletter.

This edition of the newsletter contains:

News features.
The Powder Coating Manual (Part 7)
Exhibitions and Conferences in September and October 2002

If you have information you would like to have included in this newsletter, please contact the moderator using the details given at the end of each newsletter.

Powder Coating 2002

    News Features  
Mazda develops environmentally friendly coating technology
(European Coatings Flash - August 05, 2002)

Mazda (Tokyo, Japan) has successfully developed a new envionmentally friendly coating technology. It reduces the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) to the same level of VOC regulation in Europe where waterborne paints are mainly used, while achieving reduction of CO2 discharge and better coating quality. This technology is called "Three layer wet paint system". Primer coating process is combined into the top coating process aiming to reduce environmental impact comprehensively.

Bayer opens Powder Coatings Competency Centre
(htp://www.pra.org.uk/publications/newsofthemonth/nom-current.htm )
The Bayer Corporation has opened a USD 1.5M Powder Coatings Global Research and Development Competency Centre at its Pittsburgh site in the USA. The Centre features three separate application lines which can be operated simultaneously as well as a range of equipment, from laboratory-scale extruders, grinders and particle sizers to spray and oven-bake capabilities.
The facility will be used to support customers, evaluate new products and develop new technologies and applications. Bayer had strengthened its position in the powder coatings industry through its acquisition of Sybron Chemicals and its RUCO Polymer subsidiary in 2000. (J Coat Technol, May 2002, 74 (928), 30)

NEV features paint - free exterior
http://www.pra.org.uk/publications/newsofthemonth/nom-current.htm )

DaimlerChrysler's newest neighbourhood electrical vehicle (NEV), the 2002 GEM unveiled in Santa Monica last April, features thermoplastic body panels with embedded colour rather than paint. Only the roof rails are powder-coated. The plastic panels, according to the company, offer more consistent colour and greater image depth. (Coatings World, Jun 2002, 7 (6), 12)

Global Colour popularity report
http://www.pra.org.uk/publications/newsofthemonth/nom-current.htm )

It is reported that the annual DuPont Global Colour Popularity Report deemed silver the most popular automotive colour choice in 2001 in Asia, Europe and the Americas. Looking to the future, DuPont expects to see neutrals, such as white, black and grey, continue to gain popularity over the next two to three years, along with a wide range of blues and yellow-golds as automotive
designers search for new ways to improve consumer appeal of vehicles through colour.

Rohm and Haas intends to acquire Ferro's European powder coatings
(European Coatings Flash - August 12, 2002 )

Rohm and Haas Company announced its intention to acquire the European assets of Ferro Corporation's Powder Coatings business for approximately $60 million. These assets include manufacturing operations in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Spain, supporting an extensive sales and distribution network throughout Europe and strong market positions in the automotive, construction, appliances, and general industrial market segments.

Jim Swanson, Vice President and Business Unit Director of Rohm and Haas's Powder Coatings business said "Ferro's European powder coatings business provides the perfect complement for our already strong Pulverac business in Romano d'Ezzelino, Italy. The expanded European footprint will provide new opportunities for Rohm and Haas specialty products, including our world leading low-temperature cure technology, high yield products, and thermoplastics."
Rohm and Haas Company will incorporate the Ferro acquisition into the existing Powder Coatings business, headquartered in Reading, PA. The acquisition is expected to increase the Powder Coatings division sales to approximately $300 million.

Akzo Nobel to acquire Ferro Powder Coatings in Americas and Asia Pacific
(European Coatings Flash - August 12, 2002 )

Akzo Nobel Coatings has signed a contract with Ferro Corporation to acquire its powder coatings businesses in the Americas and Asia Pacific. The value of the transaction is USD 73 million free of cash and debt. The Cleveland, Ohio - based company posted total sales for its powder coatings businesses in the Americas and Asia Pacific of USD 100 million in 2001. The acquisition will be subject to approval by competition authorities in the United States and additional approvals will be sought as and where appropriate.

Commenting on deal, Mr. M V Ravi. Business Manager-Powder Coatings,Akzo Nobel Coatings India Pvt Ltd, informed 'India Powder Coating', "Under the terms of the deal Akzo Nobel will take over all of Ferro's powder operations in the USA including factories in Nashville, TN and Brecksville, OH, and the product development and management facilities in Cleveland, OH. In Asia Pacific the deal includes the purchase of Ferro's powder operations in Ningbo, China along with its joint venture interests in Ulsan, South Korea. The Ferro business in Argentina is also included in the acquisition."

Resolution Performance Products expands epoxy resins capacity
(European Coatings Flash - August 26, 2002)

Resolution Performance Products L.L.C. announced plans for a USD 3.8 million capacity expansion for waterborne epoxy resins at the company's Argo, IL, production plant. Jeff Nodland, the company's president and chief operating officer, said the expansion
would "ensure an adequate supply of product for our customers while allowing us to optimise production between sites for future efficiencies." Resolution Performance Products said it is the world's biggest manufacturer of epoxy resins and Versatic acids and derivatives.

http://www.pra.org.uk/publications/newsofthemonth/nom-current.htm )

The following developments have taken place recently:

BS EN 13284-1: 2002: Stationary source emissions - determination of low range mass concentration of dust. Part 1. Manual gravimetric method

BS EN 13526: 2002: Stationary source emissions - determination of the mass concentration of total gaseous organic carbon in flue gases from solvent using processes - continuous flame ionisation detector method

For further information, please go to: http://www.bsi-global.com

Quick Links www.ipconweb.com
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Testing Labs


    Exhibitions and Seminars  

1-6 September 2002, Erlangen, Germany
For further information, please contact: European Society of Rheology, Martensstr 7, 91058 Erlangen, Germany. Tel: + 49 9131 85 28 593; Fax: + 49 9131 85 28 321:

2-5 September 2002, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
For further information, please contact Melanie Boyce or Victoria Bowyer: Conferences and Events, IOM Communications Ltd, 1 Carlton House Terrace, London, SW1Y 5DB. Tel: + 44 20 7451 7303; Fax: + 44 20 7839 2289 or go to:

4 September 2002, Cheshire, UK
This conference is organised jointly by PRA and the Royal Society of Chemistry. For further information, please contact: Royal Society of Chemistry, 34 Beechfields, Doctors Lane, Eccleston, Chorley, PR7 5RE, UK

5–6 September 2002, Leeds, UK.
Organised by the Colloid and Interface Science Group of the Faraday Division of the Royal Society of Chemistry. For further information, please contact: B. S. Murray, Food Colloids Group, Procter Department of Food Science, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT. Tel: + 44 113 233 2962; Fax: + 44 113 233 2982

9-11 September 2002, Dresden, Germany
For further information, please contact: Prof Dr Hans-Juergen P Adler, FATIPEC President, TU Dresden, Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry and Textile Chemistry, 01062 Dresden, Germany. Tel: + 49 351 463 3782; Fax: + 49 351 463 7122:

Klebtechnisches Forum: Praxisseminar Klebtechnik
September 10 - 12, 2002 Seminar; Hanover/Germany

More Information from: Zentrale Einrichtung für Weiterbildung der FH Hannover, Postfach 920251, 30441 Hannover Germany Fax: +49 (511) 92 96-10 25,
http://www.fh-hannover.de/zew weiterbildung@fh-hannover.de

10-13 September 2002, Glasgow, UK
For further information, please contact Lisa Bromley, Conference and Events, IOM Communications, 1 Carlton House Terrace, London. Tel: + 44 20 7839 2289; or go to:

Euradh 2002/ Adhesion 2002
(September 10 - 13, 2002 Glasgow, Great Britain)
More Information from: IOM Communications Ltd. Mrs. Lisa Bromley 1 Carlton House Terrace London SW1Y 5DB, United Kingdom, Fax: +44(0)20 7839 2289, http://www.materials.org.uk/iomevents/euradh , Lisa_Bromley@materials.org.uk

Galvitech + Finishing Verona Fair
September 12 - 14, 2002 Exhibition; Verona/Italy
More Information from: Promax Srl, Via della Meccanica 1/R, 36100 Vicenza, Italy, Fax: +39 (444) 28 06 37, http://www.galvitechfinishing.com, info@galvitechfinishing.com

16-19 September 2002, Moscow, Russia
For further information, please contact Messe Duesseldorf GmbH, Stockumer Kirchstrasse 61, 40474 Duesseldorf, Germany. Tel: + 49 211 45 60 77 42; Fax: + 49 211 45 60 77 40

Adhesives from Natural Resources
September 17, 2002, Cleveland/USA
More Information from: The Adhesive and Sealant Council, INC., 7979 Old Georgetown Road, Suite 500, Maryland, 20814 Bethesda, USA, Fax: +1 (301) 986-97 95,
http://www.ascouncil.org , wendy.yanis@ascouncil.org

Paint Defect Analysis Workshop
September 17 - 19, 2002, Troy/USA
More Information from: Paint Performance Consulting, 35585 Pound Road, Richmond 48062 Michigan, USA, Fax: +1 (586) 727-27 24, http://www.paintperformanceconsulting.com techservices@paintperformanceconsulting.com

(18-20 September 2002, Toronto, Canada)
For further information, please contact: Intertech USA, 19 Northbrook Office Park, Portland, Maine 04105, SA. Tel: + 1 207 781 2150; Fax: + 1 207 781 9800; or go to:

18-21 September 2002, New Delhi, India
For further information on this exhibition and conference, please contact: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry, Federation House, Tansen Marg, 110001 New Delhi, India. Tel: + 91 11 37 38 760; Fax: + 91 11 33 20 714; http://www.indiachem2002.com

(19-20 September 2002, Bad Nauheim / Frankfurt, Germany)
For further information, please contact: Technik + Kommunikation Verlags GmbH, Automotive Circle International Conferences, Ritterfelddamm 82 h + i, 14089 Berlin, Germany. Tel: +49 30 365 36 40; Fax: + 49 30 365 88 40 or go

IRaP 2002

21-26 September 2002, Sainte Adele, Canada
The fifth international symposium on ionising radiation and polymers, covering the broad range of all such applications and chemistries. Conference will be held in English and French. For further information, please contact: IRaP 2002, Curly Dog Communications; Tel: + 1 514 481 8086; Fax: + 1 514 481 9143; or go to:

23-24 September 2002, Minneapolis, USA
A call for papers has been issued for this conference. For further details, please contact: Joshua Barney, Continuing Professional Education, University of Minnesota, 352 Classroom Office Building, 1994 Buford Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA. Tel: + 1 612 624 0768; Fax: + 1 612 624 6225;

23-24 September 2002, Beijing, China
For further information, please contact: Michael Jardine, Chemical Week Associates, 110 William Street, 11th Floor, New York, NY 10038. USA. Tel: + 1 212 621 4978; Fax: + 1 212 621 4829 or go to:

Colour Measurement and Colour Control
(September 23 - 25, 2002 Teddington/Great Britain)
More Information from PRA, 8 Waldegrave Road, Teddington, TW11 8LD Middlesex, Great Britain, Fax: +44 (20) 89 43 47 05,http://www.pra.org.uk, e.brown@pra.org.uk

23-26 September 2002, Darmstadt, Germany
For further information on this seminar, please contact: GDCh, Postfach 900440, D-60444 Frankfurt am Main. Tel: + 49 69 7917 364; Fax: + 49 69 7917 475 or go to:

23-27 September 2002, Granada, Spain
For further information, please contact: 15th ICC Secretariat, Viajes Iberia Congresos, San Bernardo, 20, 28015 Madrid, Spain. Tel: + 34 91 531 94 49; Fax: + 34 91 532 45 43; or go to:

(24-26 September, 2002, Indiana Convention Centre, Indianapolis, USA)
Further information from Goyer Management: Tel: + 1 513 624 9988; Information also is available at: http://www.pcishow.com/


(24-27 September 2002, Lyon, France)
For further information, please contact: CME, 50 Place Marcel Pagnol, 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt, France. Tel: + 33 147 61 76 89; Fax: + 33 147 61 74 65:

Adhesives Forum
(September 25, 2002, Chicago/USA)
More Information from: The Adhesive and Sealant Council, INC. 7979 Old Georgetown Road, Suite 500, Maryland, 20814 Bethesda, USA, Fax: +1 (301) 986-97 95,
http://www.ascouncil.org , wendy.yanis@ascouncil.org

26-27 September 2002, Wuppertal, Germany
For further information on this seminar, please contact: Technische Akademie Wuppertal, Hubertus-Allee 18, D-42117 Wuppertal. Tel: + 49 202 7495-0; Fax: + 49 202 7495 216 or go to:

(2-3 October 2002, Birmingham, UK)
For further information, please contact Nigel Bean at Hill Media Ltd, 119, High Street, Berkhamsted, Herts, HP4 2DJ, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1442 878787; Fax: , +44 (0)1442 879447

(7-8 October 2002, Altdorf, Germany )
For further information on this seminar, please contact: Technische Akademie , Wuppertal, Hubertus-Allee 18, D-42117 Wuppertal. Tel: + 49 202 7495-0; Fax: + , 49 202 7495 216 or go to: http://www.taw.de

(7-8 October 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark)
For further information, please contact: Elisabeth Kallgren / Joanna , Patrikson, TKI, Institute for Surface Chemistry, Box 5607, SE 114 89 ,Stockholm, Sweden. Tel: + 46 8 790 99 00; Fax: + 46 8 20 89 98 or go to: ,http://www.surfchem.kth.se

(9-11 October 2002, Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
For further information, please contact IIR - Greenline Communications, 6th Floor, 29 Bressenden Place, London, SW1 E5DR, UK. Tel: + 44 20 7915 5055; Fax: + 44 20 7915 5056 or go

11th Advanced Radiation (UV/EB) Curing Marketing/Technology Seminar
(October 9 - 10, 2002, New Jersey/USA)
More Information from: Armbruster Associates Inc., 43 Stockton Road, 07901 Summit NJ, USA, Fax: +1 (908) 277-15 73,
http://www.armbrusterassocinc.com, drdavearm@att.net,

(10-11 October 2002, Altdorf, Germany)
For further information on this seminar, please contact: Technische Akademie Wuppertal, Hubertus-Allee 18, D-42117 Wuppertal. Tel: + 49 202 7495-0; Fax: + 49 202 7495 216 or go to: http://www.taw.de

Green Solvents for Catalysis
(October 13 - 16, 2002, Bruchsal/Germany)
More Information from Dechema e.V. Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, 60486 Frankfurt a.M. Germany, Fax: +49 (69) 75 64-201,
http://www.dechema.de feisst@dechema.de

(14-18 October 2002, Lisbon, Portugal)
For further information, please contact: Elisabeth Kallgren / Joanna Patrikson, TKI, Institute for Surface Chemistry, Box 5607, SE 114 89 Stockholm, Sweden. Tel: + 46 8 790 99 00; Fax: + 46 8 20 89 98 or go to:

(15-17 October 2002, Prague, Czech Republic)
For further information, please contact: Incheba Praha s.r.o., areal Vystaviste, 170 90 Praha 7, Czech Republic. Tel: + 420 2 201 03 476; Fax: + 420 2 333 78 225:

(16-18 October 2002, Shanghai, China)
For further information, please go to:

(16-17 October 2002, Birmingham, UK)
For further information, please contact Nigel Bean at Hill Media Ltd, 119 High Street, Berkhamsted, Herts, HP4 2DJ, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1442 878787; Fax: +44 (0)1442 879447

(17-18 October 2002, Mulhouse, France)
European Congress on the protection and decoration of modern rail-borne vehicles. For further information, please contact: Esther Schwencke, Vincentz Verlag, Schiffgraben 43, 30175 Hannover, Germany. Tel: + 49 511 9910 270 Fax: + 49 511 9910 279 or go to:
http://www.coatings.de or http://www.lackiernetz.de

(17-19 October 2002, Verona, Italy)
Conference and exhibition on environmentally compliant technologies for coating products and applications. For further information, please contact: La Rivista del Colore Spa, Palazzo Larice, edificio M, Via Torri Bianche 3, 20059 Vimercate (MI),
Italy. Tel: + 39 039 629041; Fax: + 39 039 62904208;

(22-25 October 2002, Sinsheim, Germany)
For further information, please contact P. E. Schall GmbH, Messeunternehmen, Gustav-Werner-Strasse 6, D-72636 Frickenhausen, Germany. Tel: + 49 7025 9206 0; Fax: + 49 7025 9206 620

(22-24 October 2002,Cardiff, Wales)
This joint conference and exhibition is organised by the Institute of Corrosion and Advantica Technology. For further information, please contact: The Institute of Corrosion, Corrosion House, Vimy Court, Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire, LU7 1FG. Tel: + 44 1525 851771; Fax: + 44 1525 376690 or go to: http://www.icorr.demon.co.uk

(27-29 October 2002, New Orleans, LA, USA)
For further information, please contact: NPCA, 1500 Rhode Island Ave, NW Washington, CD 20005-5597. Tel: + 1 202 462 6272; Fax: + 1 202 462 1924 or go to:

(28-30 October 2002, The Hague, The Netherlands)
The final programme has now been issued. 44 papers have been accepted for presentation at the Congress. For further details, please go to:

ICE 2002
(30 October - 1 November 2002, New Orleans, USA)
FSCT Annual Meeting and International Coatings Expo. For further information, please contact FSCT, 492 Norristown Rd, Blue Bell, PA 19422; Tel: + 1 610 940 0777; Fax: + 1 610 940 0292 or go to: http://www.coatingstech.org


  Powder Coater’s Manual ------- (Part - 7)  
Part Preparation Processes & Equipment

Raw metals have surface characteristics that can cause poor adhesion, surface defects, and premature corrosion if they are coated without and part preparation. Prior to the application of a powder coating, the metal must be cleaned and treated to provide good adhesion, appearance and corrosion resistance.

Powder coating a metal part provides the necessary appearance and performance qualities. The finished film acts as a physical barrier to moisture. If the coating is damaged and bare metal is exposed, corrosion can form and spread. Pretreatment not only provides a better bond of the coating to the part, it also helps to prevent the undercoat creepage of corrosion, adding value to the product and extending its useful life.

The term pretreatment refers to the mechanical or chemical surface treatment for a manufactured product. The part surface, or substrate, needs to be clean and prepared for the application of a coating. Pretreatment may be as simple as a solvent wipe or it may be a multistage spray washer that cleans the part and applies a conversion coating for good paint adhesion and performance. The level of pretreatment employed is directly related to the appearance and performance requirements of the product in the field.

The powder coating will not hide defects and the performance of coating is directly related to the condition of the substrate. Application of the coating over a contaminant will prevent the coating from forming a tight bond to the substrate and if the contaminant lifts off, so will the coating. Dirt particles will not dissolve or be hidden by the coating. To ensure good appearance and adhesion, the part must be clean.

In addition to cleaning, it may be necessary to develop a conversion coating on the surface prior to coating application. With the exception of some precious metals like silver, gold and platinum, metals react with air to form an oxide layer on their surface. Water molecules are tightly held to this oxide layer. This is not a good surface condition for bonding.

There are a number of options to the type and extent of the pretreatment process used. In determining which process is required for a particular situation, one must consider the performance requirements of the final part, the coating being applied, the type of substrates being coated and the different types of pretreatment available. A knowledge of metal surfaces and the condition of their surfaces prior to coating is essential.


Each class of metals has its own unique surface characteristics that will affect the performance of an applied powder finish. These characteristics include the not only the solid properties of the base metal itself but also the many surface attributes that are determined by the chemical composition and processes used in the manufacture of the metal. These surface attributes consist primarily of a mixture of the oxides, hydrates, and salts of the metallic elements which make up the metal composition and very little of the metal itself. In addition to these natural constituents, a number of contaminants are present. For example, on steel these would include surface carbons, oils, lubricants, metal fines, non-metallic surface inclusions, rolled-in scale, large surface carbides, dirt, corrosion products, and by-products of bacterial action, mildews and other fungal deposits. Zinc surfaces will have oils, lubricants, corrosion products, metal fines, dust, dirt, and other extraneous soils. Aluminum will be similar to zinc but also include heavy deposits of aluminum oxide. The aluminum oxide is not considered a classic contaminant in itself but it may interfere with the removal of other contaminants.

There is no universal part preparation method that can be used to deal with all of the different metals and their respective surface contaminants and be effective in all cases. An understanding of the different metals, their typical surface characteristics and the different treatment methods is very important to the powder coater.


Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon with small amounts of other elements. The steel manufacturing process can be varied to produce steels with different properties and gauges. Heavy gauges of steel are typically hot-rolled steel. Hot-rolling is the first step in the development of steel slab. It produces a surface that carries a layer of mill scale that is developed after the steel is rolled, during the cooling process. The scale is relatively adherent to the metal surface beneath it but it is often cracked and loosened during the manufacturing process.

of powder over HRS surfaces that have not had the scale removed is very likely to result in adhesion failure. Complete and reliable removal of mill scale requires acid pickling or mechanical cleaning. Welded areas on HRS may cause further problems with adhesion failure and application. The welding process leaves a rough surface with dried-on compounds, oils and stains that can interfere with application and adhesion. Welded areas should be mechanically cleaned by
wire brush or blasting to remove contamination that will resist chemical cleaning.

Cold rolled steel (CRS) is a further reduction in the process that produces steel in thinner gauges (0.005 to 0.080 inches or 0.0127 to 0.20 centimeters thick) and has a finer microstructure than hot-rolled steel. It has the same basic elements as the HRS but not the mill scale and heavy carbon smut. CRS sheets will normally have light oil on the surface to act as a rust inhibitor but it is relatively clean and free of oxides. Chemical cleaning can be a very satisfactory way to prepare CRS for powder coating.

Some products, such as automotive panels and wheels, are manufactured from high strength-low alloy steels (HSLA). HSLA steels have small amounts of alloying elements included in their composition to provide better strength-to weight ratios. HSLA will normally respond well to the same treatment methods as other carbon steels and oxidation can be removed by grit blasting. Blasting to a near-white or white metal clean surface may produce some shadowing,’’ due to the nature of the oxides on the surface. Typically, this is not a problem and coating adhesion is good over these surfaces. Some HSLA materials contain silicone, which can accumulate as oxides on the surface and interfere with subsequent cleaning and conversion coating processes.

Stainless Steel

Stainless steel (SS) is relatively free of the iron hydrates that are a common component on the surface of regular grades of carbon steel. SS should be cleaned to remove the surface oils and dirt from manufacturing and handling. Many stainless steel products do not have a protective coating because they are not sensitive to ordinary atmospheric conditions.

The passive oxide layer on stainless steel is relatively inert to alkaline cleaners and other chemical products that are commonly used on carbon steel. Normal cleaning will remove lose soils but it will not create a surface that is receptive to iron phosphating. Acid etchants or mechanical abrasion processes are sometimes used to remove the oxide layer and create a slightly roughed surface that is better for adhesion of the coating. These processes help promote adhesion but they do not provide any additional resistance to moisture penetration.

Galvanized Steel

Zinc coating of steel to produce galvanized steel can be produced by hot-dipping the steel into a molten bath of zinc or by electrolytic application in an ionic zinc solution. Galvanized materials are used to provide an additional layer of corrosion protection. The performance properties of the galvanized product produced by hot-dip or electrolytic process are not much different. However, the surface chemical properties do have some significant differences.Hot-dipped galvanized steel has a spangled appearance, which is determined by the specific chemical composition of the molten zinc bath and the cooling process used for solidification of the coating. The coating has a layered structure that includes a thin layer of alloyed iron-zinc coating adjacent to the steel interface with a layer of zinc coating proper on the outer surface. Various elemental impurities or additives may tend to segregate to the grain boundaries of the spangles because of their limited solubility in the solidifying matrix, while other elements, such as aluminum, tend to diffuse into the entire surface of the zinc coating.

Hot-dipped galvanized coatings can be used to produce galvannealed coatings by sustaining the alloying reaction. The coating is applied at a predetermined thickness and the steel and coating are held at temperatures where the diffusion of iron is very rapid. Diffusion continues until complete alloying has occurred. Galvannealed coatings have a matte gray color and low gloss compared to the bright silvery look of the non-alloyed zinc coatings. Galvannealed coatings can provide better adhesion for organic coatings without a phosphate treatment than the free zinc coatings.

Zinc coatings applied to steel electrolytically in zinc ion solutions can provide the same corrosion protection and hot-dipped zinc coatings but they are very different in composition and structure. Electrogalvanized steel is comparatively free of the minor impurities that are common to the hot-dipped zinc coatings. In the electrogalvanizing process, there is no need for the metallic element additives that are used to control the behavior of the hot-dipped bath and the spangle size and pattern of the coating. Electrolytic zinc coatings are relatively uniform in composition without the thermally induced diffusions of iron that produce alloy layers in the hot-dipped process. Coating deposition occurs from sulfate or chloride saline solutions so it is possible to have some minor inclusions of these salts in voids of the coating if the surface is improperly rinsed but good control of the rinse process will normally eliminate this problem. Also, since there is no recrystallation from the molten state, there is no variation of the spangle.


Pure aluminum (99.5% Al) has low density, high ductility and low strength. Aluminum can be alloyed to produce metals with many of the desirable characteristics of the pure metal and added properties from the alloy for strength. Aluminum is commonly alloyed with one or more of the elements of copper, manganese, magnesium, silicon, nickel, tin, and zinc as major constituents and chromium, iron, nickel, silicon, and titanium as minor constituents or normal impurities. Since some alloys may have less corrosion resistance than the pure metal, they are sometimes clad with pure aluminum or another alloy with better corrosion resistance. The various alloys may respond differently to cleaning and treating.

Aluminum alloys are classified into two general types; those which are strain-hardenable and those which are hardenable by heat treatment. These two types are pre-determined by their elemental compositions and how these compositions react to mechanical stress and temperature. Cold working or heat treating of aluminum alloys will develop a more homogenous surface texture and distribution of the various metal elements than the original wrought aluminum. Heat treating of aluminum alloys can affect the chemical responses of their surfaces and the receptivity to cleaning and chemical treatment. For example, a manganese alloy will tend to collect manganese oxides on the surface, in addition to the normal aluminum oxides.

These cold worked or heat treated aluminum alloys will generally have better corrosion resistance than the softer and more heterogeneous wrought material. The raw ingot will have larger, more segregated inclusions while on the treated alloy these particulate intermetallics will be more uniform and less likely to develop corrosion cells. Manganese, lead, zinc, and titanium have less effect on the corrosion resistance of aluminum alloys than magnesium, iron, silicon, and copper. Different chemical surface characteristics of the alloy will react differently to certain types of exposure. For example, magnesium will retard corrosion if exposed to saline chloride but promote corrosion when exposed to alkalinity.

Aluminum alloys are identified by a series of numbers. Different series of alloys will react differently to chemical treatment. The 1000 series products have the least amount of alloying impurities. These products are readily treated by chemical process and have excellent corrosion resistance. The 2000 series uses copper as the major alloying element to add strength to the metal. They may not always respond to chemical treatment. Since each of the different series will have somewhat different properties, it is wise to know what basic elements are used in the raw material and how they affect pretreatment.

  To be Continued.....  

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Moderator: Welcome aboard
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This is your newsletter. Your feedback, comments contribution and suggestions are the most important tools which will help us to put desired information on these pages, and don't forget, if your company has news to report, we want to hear about it. Please be certain to send company news, new product information, and technology updates to the address or e-mail below so that we can continue to bring the industry the latest happenings

If you wish to place an advertisement banner in our newsletter or promote your products, please contact the moderator.


Vivek Soley (Moderator)
(India Powder Coating: The complete onweb solution)
3, Lalaram Nagar, Indore MP 452001, INDIA Phone 91 731 492291 mobile 9826297112
viveksoley@hotmail.com , minalsoley@eth.net

You may also send short urgent messages (150 characters) through the mobile email address which is
9826297112@ideacellular.net (NEW)