India Powder Coating  


  IPC-E Newsletter: March 2003  
  Welcome to the March edition of the IPC e-newsletter.

This edition of the newsletter contains:

News features.
The Powder Coating Manual (Part 13)
Exhibitions and Conferences in and March and April 2003

If you have information you would like to have included in this newsletter, please contact the moderator using the details given at the end of each newsletter.

Important: Since this is an announcement group, only the list owner can send emails to the group. If you use the "Reply" button of your email software, the email will bounce back. Please send all your emails to or . DO NOT use the "Reply" button to send your contributions suggestions. 

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    News Features      

David Brown, Rick Husband, Laurel Clark, Kalpana Chawla, Michael Anderson, William McCool, and Ilan RamonLost: Space Shuttle Columbia
IPC offers its condolences to the families of the seven astronauts lost in the February 1st tragic breakup of the Space Shuttle COLUMBIA.

Columbia's Thermal  Protection System: NASA FACTS

Thermal Materials

The recovered damaged tile NASA selected four basic materials for the original. design used on Columbia, the first operational orbiter. The basic materials were Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC), Low- and High-Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles (LRSI and HRSI, respectively), and Felt Reusable Surface Insulation (FRSI) blankets. For the development flights, Columbia had more than 32,000 individual tiles covering the lower and upper surfaces, with FRSI covering the upper payload bay where peak temperatures were less than 600 degrees F.

Black or white tiles are used to protect the orbiter against temperatures between 1,200 and 2,500 degrees F.

Both white and black tiles are all made of the same base materials. These materials are manufactured in blocks (or billets) that are machined into the precise shape of the tile before application of the coating. The reaction cured glass (RCG) coatings are made from blended glass powders mixed with thickeners and pigments. The coatings are applied with conventional spray equipment, dried, and are then fired in a kiln at 2,200 degrees Fahrenheit for 90 minutes. The coatings are approximately 0.01 inch thick.

The tiles are bonded to the orbiter with a silicone adhesive. Silicones, unlike many adhesives, remain very flexible at low temperatures (experienced during the cold part of orbit) and retain good bond strength at the high temperatures experienced during reentry. The tiles are first bonded to a Strain Isolator Pad (SIP), a needled Nomex felt material, before bonding directly to the aluminum airframe (or graphite epoxy composite in the case of the OMS pods and payload bay doors). The purpose of the SIP is to allow the tiles to float very slightly to limit vibration-induced damage during the ascent to orbit and also to provide a means of compensating for the differences in thermal expansion between the tiles and the airframe. 

In January 1980, NASA announced a contract to develop a kit for astronauts to repair damaged heat shield tiles on the space shuttle. No such kit has been flown on a shuttle in recent memory, but the news item on  makes for interesting reading in light of Columbia's breakup. Further details on Columbia's Thermal Protection System are available on 
You can report debris or images to NASA at this phone number: 281-483-3388 or (936) 699-1032. Text reports and images should be e-mailed to:  or 

Feedback from IPC's virtual community 

It (silicone coating )could be considered to form sheets of the ceramizing rubber and glue them in case of necessity onto the spacecraft body. This might not be a long lasting solution, however it might help to enter atmosphere without severe damages.
Dr. Torsten Sixt

Try Silicone high temperature coatings used in barbecues and engine exhausts.

Ajit Gupta
Rapid Coat

It would seem possible to come up with some simple coating sprayed or layered into gaps in tiles or on top of them with disturbing them. We have various vacuum processes on the ground.
W Ford

I've spent a lot of time cooling my heals in the lobbies of different Flight Centers and most of the people around me were hawking their products and services.  They were met with and their product/service was discussed.  If they could qualify to do business with the government, they were given specifications and bidding guidelines.  It's pretty much the only way to be considered by NASA and its contractors.
John Hall 

How to do business with NASA 


Advertisement feature


Mitsuba introduces the Electro-Mechanical Reciprocator XL-Series.

The Electro-Mechanical Reciprocator manufactured by MITSUBA SYSTEMS, possesses the capability to vary the speed & stroke to suit the conveyor speed and the jig height.

The reciprocator are electrically driven via AC geared motor, giving gentle and distinct motion. The advanced control system of the reciprocators is designed to control reciprocating speed, stroke length & multi speed operations, thus ensuring the best possible coating results. Each reciprocator can accommodate up to 8 automatic guns and can this be used even where high line speeds are employed.

Salient Features :

Increased Uniformity - Advanced digital control.

Improved Finish - Smooth movement during traversing and change of direction.

Quick Job Change - Pre-programmable preset points for automatic selection of stroke and speed.

Maximum Reliability - Simplicity of design and operator friendly controls.

Do feel free to contact us to know more about how automation can reduce your powder coating coat.

To know more about MITSUBA products please visit 
Or contact us at: 

Mitsuba Systems,
34/H, Laxhmi Industrial Estate,
New Link Road, Andheri (W),
Mumbai - 400 053
Tel : 0091-22-26318633/26334735/56924151/52/53/54
Fax : 0091-22-26316565
Email : 
Website : 

Cost-Cutting Program at Akzo Nobel
[Insider News] February 18, 2003 Issue
Akzo Nobel reported fourth-quarter net income excluding one-time items of 176 million euros, or approximately $190 million, a 21% decline from the fourth quarter of 2001. Sales for the quarter were flat compared to the prior-year period, at 3.385 billion euros. For all of 2002, net income excluding one-time items was 892 million euros, a 4% decline from 2001. Sales for the year declined 1%, to  14.002 billion euros. For the company's Coatings segment, fourth- quarter operating income was 81 million euros (approximately $966 million), a 23% increase from the fourth quarter of 2001. Coatings sales for the quarter rose 3%, to 1.277 billion euros ($1.383 billion). For all of 2002, Coatings operating income was 465 million euros, a 9% increase from 2001. Coatings sales for the year rose 2%, to 5.521 billion euros. The company said earnings were  up "significantly" for decorative coatings due primarily to cost savings and higher margins. Strong results also were reported for the company's Marine and Protective Coatings business. Industrial- coatings earnings improved, "although in general the business climate remains weak, especially in Europe," the company said. Chairman of the Board of Management Cees Van Lede said the company's fourth- quarter results were adversely affected by higher pension costs, negative currency exchange rates and a weaker performance for the company's Pharma segment. Results for the Coatings and Chemicals segments, meanwhile, were "substantially improved." Van Lede said 2003 "will be a tough year," and said the company will accelerate an ongoing cost-cutting program. The company said it plans to cut its work force by an additional 2,000 employees by the end of this year, bringing the total reductions to 5,500 since a cost-cutting program was launched in 2001. Of the 5,500 total, 2,500 will be Coatings- segment employees.

Commenting on this, Mr. Ishwar S said in his email "From the available information Akzo's results were affected by the larger pension corrections and the slow down in our pharma business which is driven by patent protection. Coatings did well and the challenge this year is to manage in a mature market when raw material prices are rising everyday". When asked, "If the coating is doing well, what is the reason for reduction in work force". Mr. Ishwar replied," Improving productivity and the impact of RM price increase is forcing all companies to downsize. Also a lot of things earlier done in-house is now outsourced...."

Asian Paints: Best Small Company for India
European Coatings Flash - February 24, 2003)
"Asiamoney", one of the leading finance magazine in Asia and a subsidiary of "Euromoney" has adjudged Asian Paints among the Best Small Company 2002 for India (small company implies companies with market capitalisation below USD 500 million (INR 24.250 billion)). Asiamoney's 11th Annual Best Managed Companies across countries in the Asia region is based on a poll that is faxed to nearly 3,000 fund managers, Chief Investment Officers and Head of Research at fund management firms, insurance companies and brokerage houses in the Asia Pacific Region (including Australia & Japan), Europe and North America. Based on the findings of the poll and internal research, the Best Small Company 2002 & Best Managed Company 2002 for each country is decided. Asian Paints has been rated as the Best Small Company -2002 in India. In recognition of the achievement, Asian Paints will be felicitated by the publication at an Awards dinner at the Ritz Carlton Millenia, Singapore on Thursday Feb 20 at 1900 hrs. Commenting on being awarded the recognition, Mr. Ashwin Dani, Vice Chairman & Managing Director mentioned: "We are delighted to be accorded this recognition from one of Asia's leading financial magazine".

Goodlass Nerolac plans to shut Mumbai unit

(European Coatings Flash - February 03, 2003)

Goodlass Nerolac Paints is planning to close down its manufacturing unit in the city of Mumbai on account of non viability of the plant. The board, by means of a circular resolution, have given their consent to seek the approval of concerned authorities for closure of the Lower Parel unit in the central suburb, the company informed the Bombay Stock Exchange on 24 Jan.

Paints and coatings: adding more colours.    
The paint industry in India has been on a steady rise since post liberalisation with several factors like reduction in the excise duty from 40.5% to 16% and improvement in the automobile industry adding to the growth of the sector. The industry mainly comprises two segments - decorative segment, which includes enamels, distempers, emulsions, exterior finishes and wood finishes; and industrial segment, which includes automotive coatings, high performance coatings, powder coatings, coil coatings and marine coatings. The decorative segment holds 70% of the Rup 500 bn paints market. After a poor phase in 2000-2001, the segment has recovered with a slight increase in margins but with a low growth of about 3.5% during 1H 2002. However, the industrial segment, which accounts for 30% of the market, recorded a promising 8% growth during 1H 2002. The Rup 500 bn organised sector in the paints industry holds about 60% of the market with few players like Asian Paints, Goodlass Nerolac Paints, Berger Paints, ICI, Jenson & Nicholson and others. The un-organised sector, which holds the balance 40% of the market, has 2500 small-scale units. The global demand for paints and coatings is projected to increase by 3% to about 26 M tonnes in terms of volume and by 4.6% to $80 bn in terms of value by 2003. Continued expansion in North America, favourable demand in Canada and Mexico, and anticipated recovery in Asian markets of China, Thailand, and South Korea is likely to add on to the industry worldwide. Also, shift to emulsion-based latex paints from solvent-based oil paints in the decorative paints segment, REFormulation strategies in the industrial paints segment, better growth in agricultural and industrial sectors, improvement in overall economic growth, good performance from industries like construction and automobiles etc, and improvement in consumer income and buying capacity could result as crucial demand drivers of the industry. Indian paints industry, with a very low base per capita consumption of 450-500 gms, still holds a promise with increasing population and growing housing sector. 

Chemical Engineering World, Dec 2002, 37 (12), 84 () (in English) 

Relius Coatings of Germany has launched its new SuperSolid Lasur wood stain, claimed to minimise the natural swelling and shrinking tendency of wood. This high solid thixotropic system, with half the conventional solvent content, requires only two rather than three coats, thus saving on material and application time. The UV-filter and absorber in its formulation gives it durable weather protection. The colourless, transparent coating is also available in a range of colours through the Relius Living Colours system. (Farbenkreis, Nov 2002 (11), 20-1)

So called 'natural paints', derived from renewable and natural mineral raw materials, are estimated at 7M litres in Europe. They are totally free of solvents and VOCs. Nonetheless their growth has recently suffered - down by 3% in 2002 and estimated at zero in 2003. The major manufacturers - which enjoy an aggregate market share of 50% - are Auro, Biofa, Leinos and BioPin. Second tier players include Livos, Aglaia, Ecotec, Naturhaus and Kreidezeit. DIY customers are mostly supplied by specialised distributors. Apart from eco- stores, an increasing number of conventional chain stores stock such products today. (Fischer, H, The Coatings Agenda Europe 2003 (Vincentz Verlag, 2003), 92)

Researchers at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in Teddington, UK, have recently announced the creation of a super-black coating, which reflects 10 to 20 times less light than the black paint currently used to reduce unwanted reflections in optical instruments. the coating is made by first immersing the object for five house in a solution of nickel sulphate and sodium hypophosphite, then etching the surface with nitric acid. It is reported that a wide range of materials can be coated in this way, including metals and ceramics. (, 5 Feb 2003)

Dulux has recently launched a "Magic White" paint, this is pink in colour when applied, but changes back to white 35-40 minutes after application. This allows users to see exactly where they have painted, and areas that they have missed, ensuring a perfect finish when painting white onto white. The new coating can be used on both walls and ceilings. (Dulux shows DIYers what they've been missing, DIY Week, 24 Jan 2003, p 11)

PPG Earns ISO 14001 Certification at All Coatings-Production Sites Worldwide
([Insider News] February 24, 2003 Issue)

PPG Industries Inc. said it has earned ISO 14001 certification,
reflecting the company's compliance with international standards for
environmental management and energy efficiency, at all PPG coatings-
manufacturing facilities worldwide.

DuPont: Net loss for 2002
European Coatings Flash - February 17, 2003

DuPont Co. reported for 2002 a net loss of USD 1.103 billion, including a USD 2.944 billion charge for the cumulative effect of an accounting change. Net income in 2001 was USD 4.339 billion, including a USD 3.866 billion gain on the sale of DuPont Pharmaceuticals. Sales for the year declined 3 %, to USD 24.0 billion. For the company's Coatings & Color Technologies segment operating income was USD 483 million, a 7% increase from the previous year. Segment sales rose 1%, to USD 5.0 billion, with the increase resulting from stronger automotive-finishes sales, the company said.

Ferro forecasts 4Q 2002 earnings growth and schedules 4Q 2002 earnings release and conference call.  

Ferro Corp expects 4Q 2002 fully diluted earnings/share from continuing operations to be between $0.16 and $0.22 (diluted earnings/share of $0.12 in 4Q 2001). The earnings growth reflects higher volumes and cost savings associated with the integration of the dmc2 businesses, which were acquired in Sep 2001. Revenue from continuing operations is expected to increase nearly 5% for both the Coatings segment and the Performance Chemicals segment compared with 4Q 2001. The Performance Chemicals segment earnings are expected to be less than that in 4Q 2001 due to the higher raw material costs and lower production rates as the company continued its effort to lower net inventory levels. Ferro Corp is a major international producer of performance materials for industry, including coatings and performance chemicals. 

Ferro 4Q 2002 earnings forecast, 15 Jan 2003, (Ferro Corp, 1000, Lakeside Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44114-7000, USA, Tel: +1 216 641 8580, Website: ) (in English) 

Novapro signs exclusive deal with Nordson Liquid
Coatings Magazine eNews - February 12, 2003

Novapro Equipment Ltd. (Brampton, Ont.) is now an exclusive Ontario representative for Nordson Liquid. The news follows an earlier agreement last November, which made Novapro a distributor for Nordson's powder division.

The UCB Group
BRUSSELS, January 31, 2003(press release) - The UCB Group is pleased to announce that its acquisition of Solutia's Resins, Additives and Adhesives activity has been closed today, following the clearing of the transaction by the relevant competition authorities. UCB is acquiring Solutia's Resins, Additives & Adhesives activity for 500 million USD, in addition to a USD 10 million exclusivity fee.

Solutia's Resins, Additives and Adhesives activities are a natural fit for UCB's Chemicals and Films businesses. By integrating all three activities into one new business, Surface Specialties, UCB will create a strong global player in resins for industrial and specialty coatings, graphic arts and adhesives, focused on environmentally friendly technologies. In 2002, this new combined business would have represented a total turnover of 1.5 billion EUR, with approximately 4,700 employees worldwide.

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Eorpean Coating Show 2003
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Liu Yaping
Shandong, China


John Everett

Mr.  D.C.Bavishi
Dharmesh Enterprises

Elizabeth Thomson
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

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Industrial Marketing services.

Your comments suggestions contributions to our website and the newsletter are always welcome. Your emails, letters, calls and visits are always encouraging.




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    Exhibitions, Seminars, Course, Lectures  
3-5 March 2003, Shangri-La Hotel, Singapore
This meeting is organised by Chemical Week. For further information, please contact: Michael Jardine, Chemical Week Associates, 110 William St. 11th Floor, New York, NY 10038, USA. Tel: + 1 212 621 4978 ; Fax:+ 1 212 621 4829 or go to:

4-6 March, 2003, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

For further information, please contact: International Expo-Consuls LLC, PO Box 50006, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Tel: + 971 4 3435777; Fax: + 971 4 3436115; or go to:

9-12 March 2003, Cologne, Germany
This conference and trade fair is organised in partnership with the European DIY Retail Association, and the association of European DIY manufacturing associations. For further information, please go to:

11-14 March 2003, Paris, France
For further information, please go to:


9-11 March 2003, Philadelphia, USA
For further information on this conference, please contact Ralph Stanziola, Industrial Color Technology LLC, 410 Clover Ct, Neshanic Station, NJ 08853, USA. Tel: + 1 908 369 8736.

12-13 March 2003, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
For further information, please contact: Asia Coatings Forum 2003, dmg world media (uk) ltd, Queensway House, 2 Queensway, Redhill, Surrey, RH1 1QS. Fax + 44 1737 855034 or go to:

16-20 March 2003, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
For further information, please contact: Riyadh Exhibitions Company, PO Box 56010, 11554 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Tel: + 966 1 4554 14 48; Fax: + 966 1 454 48 46;

Electroplating Know How Basics 
Mar 17 - 18, 2003 
Sponsored by: Kushner Electroplating School  Located at: Holiday Inn Buena Park Phoenix, AZ 
Contact: Bobby Kushner at 408-749-8652 Fax: 408-749-0176 732 Glencoe Court Sunnyvale, CA 94087  Email:  Internet:   Event Detail: A portion of the industry recognized Kushner Electroplating School training materials is available for you in this two-day program. Some of the topics covered are: Chemistry and electrochemistry of electroplating, Cleaning and rinsing techniques, The equipment of electroplating, Plating cycles Troubleshooting principles, Testing procedures and much more. 

18-22 March 2003, Rome, Italy
For further information, please contact: Interall Srl, Via Marinuzzi 38, 41100 Modena, Italy. Tel: + 39 059 282390; Fax: + 39 059 280462 or go to:

19-20 March 2003, Valencia, Venezeula
A call for papers has now been issued for this conference, which will run alongside an exhibition. For further information, please contact: STAR, Cra 43C #4Sur - 143, Of. 147, Medelliin, Colombia. Tel: +574 3188470 - 2685662;
Fax: + 574 3188472

22 March 2003, Toronto, Canada
This Symposium is an annual ink event for the Canadian Printing Ink Industry. 8 papers will be presented in 2 sessions (oil/paste ink and liquid/fluid ink).
For further information, please go to:

26 March 2003, London, UK
This symposium is being held by the London section of OCCA. Senior industrialists will present state-of-the-art market and technological reviews of current and future trends, demands and pressures on the sector. This will be the definitive meeting on digital printing for 2003. A table top exhibition and the discussion periods will ensure  maximum information
exchange and primary contact. Contributing companies include Avecia, Ciba, Clariant, ICI Image Data, Pivotal, Sericol and Xaar. Full Programme details will be issued soon, but for further information, please contact Yvonne Waterman: Tel: + 44(0)2089081086 or go to:

6-9 April 2003, Montreal, Canada
This is the 16th Industrial Minerals International Congress. For further information on this congress, please contact: Industrial Minerals at:


7-8 April 2003, Nuremberg, Germany
For further information on this conference, please go to: or

8-10 April 2003, Nuremberg, Germany
For further information, please contact: Vincentz Verlag, Schiffgraben 43 30175 Hannover, Germany. Tel: + 4 9 511 99 10 271; Fax: + 49 511 99 10 279; Alternatively, please go to:

9-10 April 2003, Nuremberg, Germany
For further information, please contact: Vincentz Verlag, Schiffgraben 43, 30175 Hannover, Germany. Tel: + 4 9 511 99 10 271; Fax: + 49 511 99 10 279; Alternatively, please go to:

9-10 April 2003, Nuremberg, Germany
 For further information, please contact: Vincentz Verlag, Schiffgraben 43,
30175 Hannover, Germany. Tel: + 4 9 511 99 10 271; Fax: + 49 511 99 10 279; Alternatively, please go to:

12-15 April 2005, Mexico City, Mexico
For further information, please go to:

15-16 April 2003, Chicago, USA
This symposium, organised by the Inter Society Color Council, will focus on new instruments, optical models and other aspects of colour and appearance. For further information, please contact Cynthia Sturke, Inter-Society Color Council, 11491 Sunset Hills Road, Reston, VA 20190, USA; Tel: + 1 7003 318 0263; Fax: + 1 703 318 0514

16 April 2003, Kentucky, USA
This Symposium is hosted by the Louisville Society for Coatings Technology and the CDIC Society for Coatings Technology. For further information, please contact Jimmy Cockerill of Cone Solvents, Inc, (Tel: + 1 502 448 9250) or Prakash Pradan of Color Corporation of America (Tel: + 1 502 722 5511).

28-30 April 2003, Atlanta, USA
To submit a topic for consideration at this conference, or to request a conference brochure, contact Scott Stephenson at Intertech, phone 207/781.9608, or go to:


  Powder Coater’s Manual ------- (Part - 13)  

Proper rinsing between process stages is essential to successful pre-treatment. Poor rinsing will leave residues on the part surface that will interfere with the remaining processes. If the alkaline cleaner is not thoroughly rinsed off, it will carry over into the phosphate solution and cause excessive chemical use or poor performance. If the final rinse is inadequate, salts can be left on the part surface and interfere with paint bonding and corrosion resistance.

The rinse following the cleaner should have an aggressive spray pres-sure to assure removal of all residual alkaline cleaner and soils. The overflow rate is adjusted to keep a degree of alkalinity which helps to avoid flash rust, reduces the precipitation, and ensures more complete rinsing of soaps, fats, oils, grease and surfactants. Some carry-over heat will warm the rinse water, which will improve solubility. The rinse following the phosphate stage is run at lower pressure than the cleaner rinse to avoid too much disturbance of the freshly deposited phosphate coating. A degree of acidity aids in the removal of unreacted heavy metal phosphate salts. Cooler water may shock off some sludge and stop the reaction between the solution and the metal for reduced streaking. Slight acidity on the surface protects the activity and stability of the final seal rinse. 

Both rinses should be overflowed at a rate that will keep them clean enough to do the job, somewhere between 3 and 10 gallons per minute (11.4 to 38 liters per minute). They should be dumped frequently to get rid of any accumulation of contaminants. To avoid excessive carry-over of the chemicals into the rinse water, be sure that the parts and racks are positioned for good drainage and the washer sections are not too close together.

Rinse water in the final rinse should be kept below 300 parts per million (PPM) hardness. PPM can be measured with a Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) meter that will indicate the pounds of a substance dissolved in 1,000,000 pounds of water, or, 120,000 US gallons. One PPM is equal to one milligram per liter (MG/L).

Water impurities can ruin all of the hard work of the coating process and shorten the useful life of the product. Particulate in the water consumes fluoride and produces scale. Organics can produce scale, sludge, foam, and surface defects. Hardness in the water is the chief source of scale, it can kick out soaps and form water spots that will show through the paint or cause adhesion failure. Clean rinse water will help avoid these problems and reduce maintenance requirements to the washer nozzles and plumbing.

Fresh water can be added directly into the rinse tank or through a riser located after the recirculating rinse stage. The added dilution ratio of the residual recirculating rinse water combined with the flushing action of the spray reduces the chemical residues to a point near zero. 

The fresh water riser increases the efficiency of the rinse by a factor of 400+, using the same quantity of fresh water.

Passivating Rinse/Seal

Proper final rinsing is critical to the success of the coating. Poor rinse water quality can easily lead to adhesion failure or rapid corrosion in the field. Water rinsing only removes the active chemicals (acid) left on the metal surface. Unreacted chemicals left on the surface can cause corrosive conditions under the finish coating. The rinse seal neutral-izes any residual water-soluble salts to prevent humidity blistering and removes any unrinsed phosphating solution residue. It stabilizes the surface pH to prevent alkaline undercutting and leaves the surface slightly acidic, sealing voids in the coating. A pH of 4.0 to 5.5 eliminates carbonates in the water and prevents the possible precipitation of metal hydroxides. The final rinse water should be kept below 100 parts per million (combined) of chlorides and sulfates.

Historically, these rinses were dilute chromic acid solutions in water. Intense ecological pressure has driven a demand for non-chrome rinses that will provide the same corrosion protection and some of them perform quite well. In many cases, a non-chrome rinse is most effective and a specific substrate but not as effective for a broad range of substrates. However, in cases where the product does not need an exceptional level of corrosion resistance, the non-chrome seal rinse is the best choice. Chromic rinses still provide the best results over a broad variety of parts and operating conditions, especially with zinc phosphate. On products that require exceptional corrosion resistance the chromic rinse is still superior.

Humidity testing can be used to determine the overall quality of the pretreatment process. Massive adhesion failures in humidity test are often the result of a poor final rinse. General blistering can also show problems related to final rinse water quality. Many times an early failure in salt spray testing is the result of poor final rinse. In salt spray the rinse can be identified as the cause of adhesion failure when the failure occurs early in the cycle without significant corrosion on exposed surfaces.

Reverse Osmosis or Deionized Water Rinse

The rinse/seal is frequently followed by a deionized water (DI) rinse to remove any accumulation of the seal rinse or phosphate, which might impair coating adhesion or performance. DI water system filters the positive and negative ions from the water to create pure water with
not mineral content.

Phosphate residue on the metal surfaces can cause uneven coating film deposition and adhesion problems. DI rinsing will eliminate mineral spotting, corrosive salts, mineral humidity blisters and organic particulate that can cause surface defects.

The DI rinse includes a recirculated spray zone followed by a fresh DI halo in the exit vestibule. The DI water in the recirculation tank should not exceed 50 micromhos conductivity and the fresh DI make-up water supplied by the halo should not exceed 10 micromhos.

Reverse osmosis (RO) purifies water by using pressure to force it through a membrane, which will not pass dissolved salts. RO is only slightly less effective than deionization and the equipment is typically less ex-pensive to purchase and maintain.

Typical Spray Washer Processes

The 3-stage iron phosphate washer is commonly used for applica-tions that do not treat heavily soiled parts. The 3-stage iron phosphate process combines the cleaning and phosphating steps in a single stage, reducing pretreatment costs and requiring less space. Cleaner solutions are usually alkaline while the phosphate solutions are acidic. The 3-stage washer must compromise the two processes, producing less than perfect results. Much better cleaning and phosphating is accomplished when these processes are separate with rinses in between. Separating the cleaning and phosphating allows the processes to be adjusted for maximum benefit of each process. The result is much more complete cleaning and a more uniform and complete phosphate coating. 

Dip vs. Spray Methods

Many cleaning and surface conversion methods can be used with either dip or spray techniques. Each of these methods has advantages and limitations.

Dipping has the advantage of reaching recesses and other areas of the parts, which might not be accessible to spray. Pockets of trapped air, however, can cause problems for dipping methods. They can prevent the entry of cleaning solution into recesses and, in extreme cases, make it impossible to submerge a part. Good temperature control is usually easier with dip methods because a single large volume of liquid is involved. Heat is lost more quickly when warm liquids are sprayed in cooler air.

An important point to remember: in a dip process, any residue that remains on the surface of the cleaning solution or rinse solution will be redeposited on the part as it is withdrawn from the dip tank. To help prevent this, a spray rinse is recommended.

Spray methods are able to use the impingement energy of the spray to help dislodge dirt and sprayed liquid can often be directed into recesses that contain trapped-air pockets. Spray techniques may also use small volumes of liquid, which may be an advantage. Spray nozzles must be properly maintained to perform correctly and avoid clogging or other problems that will lead to a poor spray pattern and reduce effectiveness of the process.

Both dip and spray methods require pumps for circulation, filters and related plumbing. Both require close monitoring of temperatures and chemical concentrations and both are subject to gradual or sudden contamination.

In some cases, a combination of dip and spray is required to provide the complete cleaning of the part. Car bodies are frequently pretreated this way.

Washer Design

The exact number, type and sequence of treatment stages for the washer is determined by the quality requirements with input from the chemical supplier and equipment manufacturer. The desired level of quality for the end product must be expressed as a specification. (UV Resistance, Salt Spray Hours, etc.) The specification is then used to determine what pretreatment method will be used. 

The basic components of the washer are tanks, pumps, spray nozzles and a tunnel to contain the process. Heaters, valves, gauges, etc. are added for control. The solution is circulated from a tank by the pump, through the nozzles and onto the parts, then returned to the tank, or, the part is submerged into the tank. An understanding of the pretreatment system, materials, design and controls is very important to the finishing system operator.

  To be Continued.....  

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Subscribe to the e-biz-newsletter, which contains information about potential customers who are in need of products related to powder coating. During the past month we have issued sales leads from Varanasi, India,  Kolkata,India; Jalgaon, India, and other areas for products related to powder coating.

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We are organizing an international conference on "Plastic & Environment - Opportunities and Challenges" on February 24-25, 2003 at India International Centre, New Delhi. You are requested kindly to announce the organizing of the conference in your forthcoming issues of  "Indian Powder Coatings" 

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Moderator We have transferred your query to the e-biz newsletter.
I am interested to know how much does a powder coating facility cost?
KR Rao

Moderator We have transferred your query to the e-biz newsletter.
We are manufacturer of Burn Off and Curing Ovens. We seem to be getting more and more interest from India so you may wish to add us to your data base.  If you need any information or pictures to post, please let me know.
Best regards, 
Scott Heran, ACE Equipment Company USA

Moderator: Please visit for listing details.
Dear sir,
We are the manufacturers of Synthetic Iron Oxide Pigments for the last 24 years. We are interested in purchasing equipment for analyzing our red and yellow iron oxide. 
K.K.Shah & N.H.Joshi
Rang Sarjan Chemicals

Moderator We have transferred your query to the e-biz newsletter.
Dear Mr. Vivek Soley,
Thank you for the membership to the ipc news letters. I have joined the ipc with an intention to learn more about the powder coating, epoxy powders and epoxy paints.
Tasnim Mohamed P A Cochin 
Moderator Welcome aboard .
Dear Mr. Soley ,
We are now keen to market our products through your site and would like to know how can your site help us in this regard .
Best Regards
Padmini Nair, M/s. Western Commercial Corporation Mumbai, India
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Vivek Soley (Moderator)
(India Powder Coating: The complete onweb solution)
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