India Powder Coating  


  IPC-E Newsletter: July  2003  
  Welcome to the July edition of the IPC e-newsletter.

This edition of the newsletter contains:

News features.
The Powder Coating Manual (Part 17)
Exhibitions and Conferences in July  and August 2003

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    News Features      

Infomercial from Zodiac Engineering.

A Real Helping Hand to the Manufacturers of Powder Paints

Zodiac Engineering are providing Turn Key Solution for Powder Coating Powders Manufacturing Plants as well as the Technology in the domestic and International Market. 

The Twin Screw Extruder is suitable for powder coating. U.F./ M.F./ P.F. moulding powder

The barrel is horizontal split type for easy cleaning. Screw is segmented.

Automatic temperature controller and Digital A.C. speed control programmable. Imported drive for power saving.

Excellent dispersion than any other single screw.

Good for any shade and product like Pure epoxy, Pure Polyester, Epoxy-Polyester, Matt, High Glossy, Texture, Structure, Wrinkle, or Special Effect.

For the convenience of the Powder Coating Industry Zodiac Engineering is capable to offer the entire Powder Coatings Powder Manufacturing Plant on TURN KEY BASIS within as short as a months time. All Quality Thermoset Twin Screw Extruders, Reciprocating Single Screw Extruders, Chilling Rollers, Air Classifying Mills (ACM) and High Speed Mixer Dry Dispensers are marketed throughout the country with assurance of the delivery of the machines within two weeks.

Zodiac Engineering is supported with highly qualified Engineering Team for marketing and after sales services. 

For Further details, contact:
Zodiac Engineering
H- 15 MIDC Satpur Nashik
Tel 91 253 2363504
Fax 91 253 2360505, 91 253 2363503

Infomercial from Mitsuba Systems (India) Pvt Ltd

Electrostatic Cloud Chamber 

Mitsuba introduces Electrostatic Cloud Chamber which is a Powder Coating Equipment based on new and different principle.

This equipment does powder coating without a powder spray gun, booth, compressor or air dryer. 

Operating principle of Electrostatic Cloud Chamber

The pieces to be coated are hung in a box, where two separate electrodes polarize the powder particles and thereby whirl them up from the base of the coating chamber. In this way they pass in a constant electrostatic field between the electrodes and the object to be coated (which is earthed).

The electrically charged particles of the powder now follow the lines of force of the electrical field and thereby arrive at all points on which the field lines terminate at the object.

The coating thickness can be varied between about 40 and 300µm by changing either the coating time (by the timer on the control panel) or the high voltage (also controlled from the control panel). The unused powder will be once more whirled up during the next coating operation and thereby progressively consumed. This results in 100% use of the powder; no expensive recovery operation is required.

Colour changes are carried out by simply interchanging coating chambers. This is achieved in less than 5 minutes.

Therefore, the Electrostatic cloud chamber can be used with very considerable cost savings for 2 dimensional parts requiring an economical coating of highest quality and brilliance.

All components are integrated in the installation. No exposed, rigid disturbance-susceptible, high - tension cables. This offers the simplest and easily understandable operation and control. 

This installation is distinguished by simple operation, absolute coating precision and both noiseless and maintenance free service.

The Electrostatic Cloud ChamberAdvantages of Electrostatic Cloud Chamber

Ideally Suited for many components
Ideally suited for high volume production of simple products.

Exemplary Economy
No Powder Spray Guns required. No compressed air required. No expensive powder spray booths required. No expensive powder recovery systems required. Low capital investment. No loss of material. No delay period of cleaning when changing the powder paint. 

Low Power consumption
This type of powder coating unit utilizes and consumes a very low amount of power - only 175VA. Operates on simple and standard available single phase supply. No complicated and bulky 3 phase supplies required. 

Compact and Flexible Unit
This powder coating system is the most compact self contained unit. Reduced requirement of expensive floor space. Equipment is on castors thus increasing its portability.

Extremely fast colour change
Colour changes are carried out by simply interchanging the inner coating colour chambers. This can be very rapidly achieved.

Pollution free
Clean, problem-free technology. No expense due to pollution control. All emission specifications have been fulfilled from the outset.

Personnel problems are solved
Simplest operation and handling without requiring any training period. Optimum unit efficiency without personnel problems.

For more information on the Mitsuba Electrostatic Chamber kindly contact :

Mitsuba Systems (India) Pvt Ltd.,
34/H-G, Laxmi Industrial Estate,
New Link Road, Andheri (W),
Mumbai - 400 053,
Tel : ++91-22-26318633 / 26334735 / 56924151 - 52- 53
Fax : ++91-22-26316565
Email :  
Website :  

Monsoon Tips
This item appeared in July 2002 issue of IPC e-newsletter. We repeat it on popular demand.

The next few weeks will be dominated by monsoon rains. The moist and humid atmosphere is known to have adverse effects on the powder coating process. 

Mr. Nirmalya Chakravorty Manufacturing & Technical Manager - Industrial Coatings Akzo Nobel Coatings India Private Limited provides these tips to our subscribers. 

The golden rule is store in a cool and dry place. 

As long as the powder is in a sealed plastic bag, it is safe. Any opened bag must be tied tightly to make it air tight. 

During application the booth air is best maintained at a R.H. of 45 to 65%. 

The good news is powder having higher moisture content can be dried very quickly by fluidizing it little longer with dry compressed air which takes away the moisture. 

Moisture in compressed air must be checked to avoid choking of fluid bed and film defects from water droplets landing on the substrate from the spray gun to form craters. 

Some moisture is desirable in powder(~0.3 to 0.5%) for better chargeability and fluidity (low % of adsorbed moisture plays the role of lubricant between the particles). 

. The most common myth is powder lumps from high moisture content. This is not true as powder is not wetted by moisture. Lumping occurs from high temperatures, low Tg resins, too much flow aid or other additives having liquid components.
Air Compressor and Moisture separator 
The following information, provided by Mitsuba Systems (India) Pvt Ltd , explains the importance of clean dry compressed air specially during the rainy season

Compressed air is required at all stages in a powder coating installation. Compressed air is used to fluidize the powder and to activate the pump for spraying the powder. It must be remembered the compressed air is also used for the cleaning operation, the colour change operation, for blowing uncured powder off rejects etc. Therefore it is important to size a compressor properly.

Generally single gun batch plants should be equipped with a 5 HP compressor which delivers at least 10 C F M of air at 6 kg/cm2 pressure. Larger plants can have a centralized compressed air source.

It also must be remembered that oil moisture and contaminant free compressed air greatly enhances operating efficiencies and so it is imperative to have good air filters & moisture separators.

Advantages of Clean and Dry Compressed Air

The most expensive factor of a powder coating installation is the powder itself. Hence reducing its consumption brings down costs. Consumption can be reduced by :-

a. Lowering film thickness.
b. Increasing transfer efficiency i.e. putting more of the sprayed powder on the object and less into the recovery system.

Now let us study these phenomena with respect to the quality of compressed air :

First we must realize that if we can achieve superior electrostatic charging of the powder we can achieve two things - one, lower film thickness [45 to 50 microns instead of 70 to 80 microns; as there is a uniform build up in the first shot] and second, we can achieve higher transfer efficiency.

The paper deals with the problem of moist compressed air & its effect on powder charging.

As air enters the first stage of any air compressor it carries with it a certain amount of moisture & water vapour. This is unavoidable although the quantity carried will vary widely with the ambient temperature and relative humidity. Pressurizing the air tends to force water vapour to condense into liquid droplets. This would happen inside the compressor, except for the fact that the air gets heated during compression. In this hot air - moisture remains in the vapour state.

In order to obtain one cubic foot of compressed air at a pressure of 7 kg/cm2 almost 8 cubic feet of free air is required. Each cubic foot of free air contains millions of moisture particles. During compression the volume of air is decreased, but all the moisture in the original 8 cubic feet of air remains. The end result is one cubic feet of saturated compressed air (i.e. with water vapour) at 7 kg/cm2 + some quantity of free water. In fact a 5 HP compressor delivering 25 cfm of air at 7 kg/cm2 can produce 5 gallons of water when the vapour is condensed.

So one has to remove this water vapour from the compressed air + the quantity of free water. If normal sintered filters only are used it will remove the free water but not the water vapour. And as compressed air travels down stream towards the equipment, it will cool down to near ambient temperatures and the water vapor will condense into liquid droplets. These liquid droplets will wet parts of the equipment and moisten the powder resulting in inefficient charging, inefficient deposition & poor quality.

Water, water vapor, oil & oil vapor directly affect the performance of powder coatings and in most installations these are not controlled.

When the relative humidity is high the electrostatic phenomena reduces. This is due to the increase in the electrical conductivity of a die-electric substance (powder) in the electrical phenomena. Measurements show that as the relative humidity increase above about 50%, layers of moisture are absorbed by solids. This moisture clings to the surface and increases the electrical conductivity of di-electric surfaces thus reducing the electrostatic phenomena.

One is very well aware of how the charging of people as they walk across a rug or the electrification of silk clothing's, blankets etc., disappear during periods of high humidity and increase in winters and dry climates. In fact laboratory experiments show that electrostatics that behave admirably in winter disappear during high humidity periods.

One can conclude that in our case these effects are the results of an increase in the electrical conductivity of powder. It may be remembered that the plastic powder one is spraying is principally insulating in nature and the electrostatic charge on the powder particle is a surface charge and not a mass charge. Besides, it has been observed that powder is highly hygroscopic in nature and when exposed to a moist atmosphere it readily absorbs this moisture. The electrical conductivity of the moist powder increases. As a result when it is sprayed on the grounded work piece it dissipates its charge to earth and does not adhere to the work piece.

It has also been observed that the resistivity of the powder decreases rapidly with an increase in both temperature and humidity and vice versa. Any change of the resistivity of powder would effect its charging and deposition efficiency. In simple terms either powder would not be able to hold its ion charged and hence would not adhere to the work piece.

Both humidity and temperature have a direct relationship upon ion charge-decay, particle deposition, and regularity of deposited thickness, adjustments required of the operating conditions of the spray guns, caking or agglomeration (clustering) of the powder particles, and a measurable negative effect upon powder resistivity. High humidity may cause the powder particles to stick to the coronas electrode and thus quench the corona. In several cases, powders that have been exposed to high humilities cannot deposit at all. Wrap arounds very nearly disappear.

Powder coating is a dry painting technique where they are electrostatically sprayed on to the workpiece. Powder paints are manufactured with specific characteristics. These must be maintained until the powder is deposited on the workpiece. Any deterioration in the powder quality may result in poor deposition efficiency, improper flow of powder through the sprayer, choking of the gun and ultimately higher production costs through excessive powder usage and equipment maintenance.

To conclude one can say that a good control on moisture and temperature can lead upto 25% increase in transfer efficiency, 15% reduction in power and 30% increase in system efficiency due to reduction in down time, control over film thickness, reduced agglomeration, reduced spray gun build up and increased ability in powder charging. 

Titanium dioxide plant to be set up in Orissa 
Coatings Flash - June 23, 2003
Saraf Agency of Kolkata is in talks with Indian Rare Earth Ltd (IREL) for setting up of a 50,000 tonne titanium dioxide plant at Chatrapur in Orissa, in association with Technocim Holding and Pigment Corporation (THPC), a public sector company of Russia. Saraf Agency has entered into a MoU with St Petersburg based THPC, which has promised to buy back the entire titanium dioxide produced by the venture for further value addition in Russia. 

Long Life Air-Drying Paints
Under normal circumstances, general maintenance paints offer up to two to five years exterior exposure before requiring further attention. We assume here that preparation and application of paints has been carried out to the paint manufacturer's instructions. Different weather conditions play an important role in the general durability of exterior paints. However, with an increasing demand for better performance, the paint manufacturers have had to rely on and even co-operate with the resin and binder manufacturers in extending the life of the conventional maintenance paints.
Read more on that in an article by Mr. Arjun Sen in our magazine section on 

The Old Black Magic
Hybridization is the combination of basic materials to produce a new material, which has the desired features of each of the components. By combining several resins or technologies, a resin chemist can produce new materials with the desired qualities of each of the components. Reacting the basic resin with a modifying resin is one method of producing resin hybrids. This method has been the most widely used method to manufacture hybrids. There are many examples of resin hybrids.

Rapid development of technologies over the last several years and more so recently have made many coatings and resins loose out to better performing coatings. The several changes in automotive coatings and automotive refinishes are one example of rapid technology developments in automotive coatings. The increased use of waterborne and powder coatings, as against solvent-based and high solids coatings is another example of rapid technology changes.

One of the most important modifiers for epoxies, as far as maintenance coatings are concerned, is refined coal tar pitch. The first coal tar epoxy coatings were developed and patented as far back as in 1954. Putting dissimilar materials like coal tar and epoxy together may have been an accident in the first place, but it has been a fortunate accident, because these two materials produce and extremely "synergistic" result.
Read more on that in an article by Mr. Arjun Sen in our magazine section on 

HSE press release: E081:03 -03 June 2003
Revised guidance on the control of exposure to triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC) in coating powders has been published by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE).

It has been revised to reflect the changes introduced by the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (Amendment) Regulations 2003, (COSHH) which came in force on 29 April 2003.

TGIC is used as a curing agent in powder coating paints applied to industrial and household products, such as car parts, washing machines and refrigerators as well as architectural finishes. It is also used as a solder mask in the manufacture of printed circuit boards. As a Category 2 mutagen, TGIC and products containing it are now subject to the additional control measures applied by the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 to substances classified as Category 1 or 2 carcinogens or mutagens. 

John Powell from HSE’s Manufacturing Sector said: “As a result of this change to the law, employers have to take a range of actions to control the risk of exposure from TGIC. One of the most significant is the requirement to thoroughly clean any surfaces where accumulations of TGIC could form. Employers also need to review the information and training provided for employees who may be exposed to TGIC, and prepare plans and procedures to deal with incidents and emergencies.”

The new Regulations make users of substances that may cause genetic damage - classified by the European Union as Category 1 or 2 mutagens - apply the same control measures already required for carcinogens, substances that can cause cancer. In practice this will currently only affect the users of TGIC because it is the only mutagen not already classified as a carcinogen.

Copies of Control of exposure to triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC) in coating powders (EIS15) are available free of charge from HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk, CO10 2WA, tel: 01787-881165 or fax: 01787-313995.

European Coating Show 2003: Significant growth in spite of crisis- 8 exhibitors form India.
A Brief closing report 

Great success in spite of economic slump and world political situation:
Nuremberg, 10 April 2003. The EUROPEAN COATINGS SHOW 2003 plus Adhesives, Sealants, Construction Chemicals in the Exhibition Centre Nuremberg ended on Thursday, 10 April 2003. 646 exhibitors from 36 countries showed a comprehensive range of products and information for the manufacture of coatings, paints, adhesives, sealants and construction chemicals on a net space of over 20,000 m². The trade fair had started on Tuesday, 8 April 2003, the extensive congress and seminar programme and the association and university meetings a day earlier on Monday, 7 April 2003. The EUROPEAN COATINGS SHOW 2003 attracted a total of over 16,000 visitors from 85 countries on the three exhibition days and four congress days.

The EUROPEAN COATINGS SHOW, which takes place at two-yearly intervals, again convincingly confirmed its position as top international event with three per cent more exhibitors and seven per cent more display space over the previous event in 2001. 51 per cent of this year's exhibitors came from countries outside Germany. 

The number of trade visitors in 2003 also clearly exceeded the previous top figure of 2001. This year's event with over 16,000 visitors from 85 countries was the strongest since the première in 1991 and thus impressively defied the economic slump and the present world political situation. The share of international visitors was again around 50 per cent. The decreases in trade visitors from the USA, China and Japan were completely absorbed by an influx of visitors from other countries, especially from Eastern and Central Eastern Europe. 

The next EUROPEAN COATINGS SHOW, a partner event of Vincentz Network, Hannover, and NürnbergMesse, takes place in the Exhibition Center Nuremberg from 26-28 April 2005. 

Spot on Smart Coatings
Coatings Flash - June 23, 2003
106 Participants from altogether 21 countries met in Berlin on 16 and 17 June for the European Coatings Conference "Smart Coatings II", to hear about and discuss recent developments concerning organic coating systems that excel with some unusual functionality. Topics included responsive sensor coatings, thermochromic systems by means of polymeric pigments, novel functional additives such as enzymes, carbon nanotubes, or nano indium tin oxide, novel routes to high performance PTFE-like coatings, photocatalytic coatings for self-cleaning and antimicrobial applications, and the functionalisation of surfaces via innovative, polymeric nanolayer coatings. A limited number of the congress proceedings is still available, please contact Amanda Beyer,

Germany is on top for exports of coatings 

Germany is the top exporter of coatings worldwide, with 18% of the total global export market, a recently issued study concludes. The United States ranks second in coatings exports, with a 15% share, according to "The World Market for Paint 2003" from Information Research Ltd. of the U.K. The first-edition volume offers "an extensive and unique insight into international paint trade," and is based on statistical analysis of international trade statistics in the paint and coatings sector, the publisher wrote.
Coatings exports are led by manufacturers whose national markets are "fairly mature," the study says. The top 10 exporters account for 75% of the world paint trade. Following Germany and the United States, the major exporters are Italy and Japan, with 7%; the U.K. and France, at 6%; Belgium and The Netherlands, 5%; and Sweden and Singapore, 3%. Various other countries account for 25% of total exports.
The top coatings importers are Canada, China, the United States, France and the U.K. The imports profile is described as being more fragmented, with the top 25 importers accounting for 75% of imports.
More information 

Dow starts up converted epoxy resin plant in China
The Dow Chemical Company's 41,000-metric-tons-per-annum converted epoxy resin plant at the Zhangjiagang site in the People's Republic of China has started up.The plant will produce solid epoxy resin used primarily to produce powder coatings, solid solution
epoxy resin for marine and protective liquid paints, and brominated epoxy resin for the production of electrical laminates.  

"All these applications have experienced double-digit growth in China," said Phil Cook, business vice president for Dow's Epoxy Products and Intermediates (EP&I). "This is due to both the buoyant domestic market and the migration  of many applications to China for local use and export to the world. Our epoxy resin plant in Zhangjiagang expands our global presence and demonstrates our commitment to the growing epoxy industry in China and the broader Asia Pacific region."

The new plant will supply resins to Greater China, ASEAN and Australasia. "It joins our epoxy facilities in Kumi, Korea (30,000 metric tons per annum), and Kinu Ura, Japan (40,000 metric tons per annum), to provide a superior network of epoxy resin facilities in the largest global concentration of demand," said Graham Daley, EP&I commercial director, Pacific.

For more information about epoxy resins from Dow,  visit


Additive Reported to Boost Surface-Cleaning Properties of Coatings
[Insider News] June 9, 2003 Issue
The use of a new hydroxy-functional silicone-modified acrylate additive can enhance the surface-cleaning properties (cleanability) of coatings. The additive is reported to provide significant improvement in cleanability, allowing much easier removal of dust and dirt particles and graffiti. The formulation of transparent and high- gloss coatings using this technology is described in "New Additive to Enhance Surface Cleanability," in the June issue of PCI.

Aerospace coatings: Pexa approved by Airbus UK as a stockist
European Coatings Flash - June 02, 2003

Pexa Ltd, the specialist distributor of paints, coatings and materials to the aerospace industry, has been approved by Airbus UK as a stockist and re-packager of paints and other non-metallic materials. 
Pexa stock a full range of aerospace coatings including corrosion resistant primers for structures and fuel tanks, composite primers/ fillers and decorative and camouflage topcoats. In addition to speciality coatings including anti-static, abrasion resistant and erosion resistant coatings. Pexa's Airbus UK approval includes repackaging, which allows Pexa to pack coatings and other products into small kits for touch up applications.

Wacker and Dow Corning plan strategic alliance to produce key raw materials in Asia 
European Coatings Flash - June 02, 2003
Wacker-Chemie GmbH and Dow Corning Corp. announced their intent to form a joint venture in Asia. The intent of the venture would be to manufacture silicone intermediates and fumed silica. The companies would jointly develop world-class manufacturing of basic materials. Each company would bring its unique expertise and technology to develop what is planned to be the leading fully integrated silicone intermediates and silica site in Asia. Wacker and Dow Corning would independently develop and operate their own manufacturing facilities for finished products at the same site. Each company would continue to compete and operate independently in the market place, both inside and outside of Asia.
"We expect double-digit growth rates in Asia over the next several years," said Peter-Alexander Wacker, President and CEO of Wacker. "Today, our Asian network of more than 20 sales offices, seven Technical Centers and six production sites ensures a high level of customer proximity throughout the region. This alliance provides an excellent opportunity to better serve our customers in these key markets."
"Dow Corning has had a physical presence throughout Asia for many years and this new move demonstrates ongoing commitment to our customers in the region," Gary E. Anderson, Dow Corning chairman and CEO, said. "Asia is critical to the growth of silicon-based materials in the 21st Century, and this alliance is very exciting."

SurfaceTechnology joins up with Powder Coating Europe 
European Coatings Flash - June 09, 2003
The leading international fair for surface technology, the SurfaceTechnology within the framework of the Hanover Trade Fair and Europe's fair for powder coatings technology, the Powder Coating Europe fair (PCE), are joining forces and presenting themselves together from April 2004 in Hanover. From 19th to 24th April both events will thus create a unique forum for the whole range of industrial applications in surface technology. Altogether the organisers, the Deutsche Messe AG and the Vincentz Network publisher's, both from Hanover/Germany are expecting about 620 exhibitors from 20 countries to visit this premiere within the framework of the 2004 Hanover Trade Fair. 
The exhibitors appeal to decision makers and users from mechanical and plant engineering, the automobile industry and their suppliers, the iron, sheet metal and metal industry, electrical engineering and electronics, office technology and the toy industry, the synthetics, wood and furniture industry as well as household equipment and medical technology. Altogether more than 33,000 trade visitors from all over the world are expected between 19th and 24th April 2004 for the SurfaceTechnology and Powder Coating Europe events. 
"By combining both events we are setting new standards to inform people, about the international range of innovative surface technology concentrated in one location ", agree Sepp D. Heckmann, member of the Deutsche Messe AG's board and responsible for the SurfaceTechnology, and Jürgen Nowak, publishing manager of the "Coatings Division" of Vincentz Network Publisher's 
Parallel to the trade fairs an international trade congress will take place for the first time for everything concerning surface technology. World famous speakers will deal with current subjects of interest. These themes will range from pre-treatment to innovative coating systems, from modern application equipment and plants to practical tips for economic surface coating.
For more information contact

Akzo Nobel's business Diosynth signs long-term supply contract with Pfizer
Arnhem / Oss, the Netherlands, June 2, 2003 - Akzo Nobel's Diosynth business has signed a multi-year contract with Pfizer Inc. The deal involves supplying Pfizer with the active pharmaceutical ingredient for the commercial production of their growth hormone disorder drug Somavert®. The exact value of the agreement was not disclosed but will contribute significantly to Diosynth's income in the coming years.

Green Mission
Details on 
Asian Paints has started harvesting rain water for its own consumption. The concept of collecting rain water was discussed with management in May ’02 and the feasibility report was prepared in June ’02, says Vikram Jaisinghani of Asian Paints.

This year we will extend the project to cover an additional area of 3,000 square metre. With this, water collection expected during the monsoon will be more than 75,00,000 litre, around 40 % of what it was about four years back, he adds.

New Berwick plant to add 10 to 15 jobs
Tuesday, June 3, 2003 By SUSAN SCHWARTZ Bloomsburg, Pa., Press Enterprise Writer

BERWICK -- A new metal factory is scheduled to open within the next two months in the blue building owned by SPEDDCORP on Vine Street.

Arnie Nelson, owner of Patriot Metal Products Inc., said he hopes to employ 10 people in the first two months, and up to 15 by year's end. The company is moving into a tax-free Keystone Opportunity Zone.Patriot Metal will do zinc electroplating, powder coating and some metal fabrication, he said.

Possible clients include manufacturers of furniture, appliances and playgrounds, he said."We're a start-up, so we're still looking for customers," Nelson said. Nelson, York, said the jobs he plans to offer will pay about average for the area. He wouldn't give an exact range of pay. He has a lease-purchase agreement for the building, he said. 

Nelson said he has appreciated the help Berwick people have given him.

PRA News of the month - June 2003
Ski coating, compound for producing said coating and method for producing the compound . (European Patent Application 114451629 pp, (Also PCT 00/29490).) The coatings are useful for skis and snowboards, providing good sliding properties; they also provide abrasion resistance over wider range of (snow) conditions, temperatures and humidity than conventional wax coatings. They 
contain polyions of polyelectrolyte(s) and, for counter charging the polyions, ions of fluorinated surfactant(s) with opposite charge to the charge of the polyions. The polyions and at least part of the surfactant ions form complexes in the coatings. The coatings may also contain fluorinated organic solvent or organic solvents and acids or bases. Preparation method is also claimed. (In German) (WSCA Item Number 03/03422)

PRA News of the month - June 2003

Japanese scientists studying the properties of the iridescent blue of the tropical butterfly morpho sulkowskyi have found the secret of its self-cleaning abilities seems to reside in the highly ordered microscopic scale-like structure of its wings. The blue colour comes about not through light absorption by pigments but through the refraction of light on the scale structure, a so called 'structural coloration'. Within the wings' structural surface, self-cleaning is brought about by air-filled cavities, in which water drops rest on 'air cushions'. These drops hardly touch the surface but roll off with the slightest movement, while at the same time washing off any adhering dirt particles. The Researchers at Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology under Osamu Sato have synthesised a liquid containing finely-divided tiny synthetic spheres and microscopic silicate particles (0.006mm in diameter). They have already succeeded in producing self-cleaning surfaces in brilliant colours ranging from blue and green to red. See (Phän Farbe, Apr 2003, 23 (4), 34).


PRA News of the month - June 2003
UCB, the Belgian speciality chemical group, opened its new North American headquarters in Smyrna, near Atlanta, Georgia in May. The new building house UCB's central administration of its Surface Specialities and UCB Pharma Divisions. Farbe Lack, Jun 2003, 109 (6), 76
Barry Krem polishes his skills for the family business
updated: 06/09/2003 11:08 PM

Moderator's note: We are republishing this material with the permission of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. The article is copyrighted (2003) St. Louis Post-Dispatch. (

Barry Krem had time to polish his skills before returning to the family business, Now he's back at Reliable Finishing, running the company that his father helped found. Unlike many children of small-business owners, Barry Krem wasn't pressured to work for the family. His father, David Krem, never pushed or encouraged his sons to join Reliable Finishing Co., a painting and coating business that he and his brother-in-law, Sam Wool, founded in 1948. But unlike many of those who walked away from their fathers' businesses, Krem later returned, buying out his uncle, who wanted to retire, and eventually taking over day-to-day operations of the company, 3333 Rutger Street. Jumping off the corporate ladder and landing back in the family business 12 years ago wasn't an easy decision for Barry Krem, 58, and his wife, Christine Krem. But the risk was lessened by the fact that Reliable Finishing was an established business. "It wasn't like I had a flash one night and I was going to start my own company like Bill Gates," he said. 

Krem wanted the chance to be his boss and welcomed the challenge of controlling his fate.  As a business owner, "You live and die on your instincts and your experience," Krem said. "It can (get your) adrenaline-pumping, and it's exciting." 

When Krem worked at the business while a teenager, he never considered the prospect of working for his father and uncle. What did rub off from his summer job, however, was an interest in manufacturing. "Working here shaped my career choice," Krem said. When he left for college in 1963, Krem focused on metallurgy, earning bachelor's and master's degrees at the University of Missouri at Rolla. He later worked for various steel companies. 

It was at now-defunct Laclede Steel Co. where he started thinking beyond his technical and scientific training. One of his responsibilities was visiting customers, ranging from large corporations to small machine shops. He helped them fix technical problems and showed them the steelmaker's new products. "So I did a lot of traveling and saw a lot of small businesses," Krem said. "I started developing a bigger interest in business." 

It spurred him to study management at St. Louis University, where he earned a master's degree in business administration. At that point, Krem said he started looking for jobs that offered management opportunities. Eventually, he wound up in Philadelphia as general manager of a steel scrap yard with 90 employees. 

Though he still saw a good future as a corporate manager, the desire to be his own boss continued to weigh on his mind. So in 1991, decades after his last summer job at the family business, Krem approached his father about joining the business. Because his uncle was looking to retire, the timing was perfect. 

The road hasn't been easy. One surprise was the continued deterioration of the manufacturing sector, not just in St. Louis but nationwide. "I grew up in heavy manufacturing," he said. "When you're immersed in that daily, you think it will go on forever." 

Though the painting and coating business doesn't face direct competition from abroad, his customers are getting squeezed by foreign competitors or the loss of work as U.S. corporations move out of the country. "As goods move overseas, the services (such as painting) go, too," he said. 

The other big change in the last decade has been the rapid growth of powder coating, where a resin mixture that incorporates a pigment is sprayed dry onto a surface and cured at a high temperature to create a durable and uniform coating. The process is considered more environmentally-friendly and energy-efficient than traditional painting methods, Krem said. 

Because customers started to see the method as more desirable, it spurred new firms and other companies, such as plating firms, to get into the coating business. That drove up competition, Krem said. "Between more coaters and less manufacturers, it's made a tough market in the last four or five years," he said. 

Figuring out ways to add more services to the coating business helps Reliable Finishing increase sales. Ten years ago, the company painted individual pieces and sent them directly back to clients. In the last four years, it started doing more assembly and packaging work, Krem said. 

Now some of the coated products are assembled, packaged and sent back to the manufacturer, ready for shipment to customers, he said. "As you move it around, transportation becomes such an integral part," Krem said. "The less you have to ship (the better)." 

In some cases, the manufacturers ask Reliable Finishing to send the packaged products directly to their customers, he added. Throw in a slow economy, and the business has faced a real challenge in recent years. But Krem has help. His wife handles the company's finances, and he counts on his father's advice. Though semi-retired, David Krem visits the facility two or three times a week and participates in big decisions. Still, the buck stops at Barry Krem's desk, and that is the way he likes it. He has one customer who typically sends in jobs for a few hundred pieces to be coated. Recently, the customer asked if he could handle a job for 16,000 pieces. That sort of challenge is exactly what Krem loves about the business. "It's very heady." 

Still, he's also become more circumspect in his decision-making in recent years. "You learn to slow down a little bit and look at what could go wrong as opposed to plunging in," Krem said. In a poor economy, a bad decision can really hurt the business, he said. Despite the problems facing his business and manufacturing, he doesn't regret going on his own. "I'm not sorry I've done it," Krem said. "It's challenging, but I find it very mentally fulfilling." 

Reporter Gregory Cancelada 
Phone: 314-340-8330 

New process means more jobs for Burkard
By Ben Lefebvre, Macomb Daily Special Writer 

E-coat technician David Richardson inspects parts before boxing and shipping them at Burkard Industries in Clinton Township. Macomb Daily photo by Ray J. SkowronekFlying in the face of general economic gloom, a Clinton Township industrial-coating company has countered by adding a new, high-tech process.

Burkard Industries Inc. on Friday celebrated augmentation to its Kelly Road facilities by showing off the new system to local business people and media members. The company operated three powder-coating lines, which apply finishing coats to industrial parts sent by manufacturers. 

The plant recently introduced an additional E-coat line, a development that is expected to add jobs and bolster business. "Last year was our best sales year ever," said Jay Burkard, company vice president, "and with this new line we're expecting more record years." Electro-deposition is a way of electronically applying epoxy coating to manufactured parts and is used heavily in the auto industry.

Burkard estimated the addition to personnel will be "approximately 25 people to start, and more as our business increases." The company employees about 50 people full time.

The vice president said the decision to bring in the E-coat line was spurred by Toyota Motor Corp., which had been searching in vain for an area business that used the system. The automaker requires the E-coating system for its parts. Last year Burkard's team assembled a prototype, demonstrated it to Toyota and secured the contract.

Ordered last October, the model was shipped piecemeal from Wisconsin throughout March and made operational in early June.  The company was established in 1934 by Burkhard's great-grandfather in Center Line as a die-casting business; in 1967 the business moved to Clinton Township. It converted to the powder-coating industry 14 years ago. Its end-client list includes Harley Davidson, Freightliner, Peterbilt, Mack Trucks, John Deere, Lionel Trains and most of the auto industry. 

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  Powder Coater’s Manual ------- (Part - 17)  
Maintenance & Control
To ensure proper operation and consistent quality, a pretreatment washer must be carefully maintained, mechanically and chemically. A regular maintenance schedule should be established, including daily, weekly, monthly and annual tasks.

Mechanical Maintenance

Nozzles - Nozzles can become worn, plugged or misaligned. Any of these conditions will reduce their effectiveness. Nozzles should be inspected daily to confirm proper spray patterns. Worn nozzles will not produce a finely atomized spray pattern and should be replaced. Plugged nozzles will not spray at all and should be removed and cleaned by removal of obvious debris and soaking in a descaling solution.

Risers - The inside of the spray risers will develop scale over a period of time and restrict flow of solutions. The inside diameter should be inspected regularly and end caps removed to drain debris. The frequency for inspection and cleaning can be determined by observing the condition of the bottom nozzles; if the bottom nozzles plug frequently, the risers probably have excess scale build up. Scale build up will restrict the flow of the process solutions, reducing the volume, which will affect the pressure and performance of the sprayed solution.

The daily inspection check list shown is an example of maintenance control device.

Heat Exchangers - Internal heat exchangers such as immersion tubes or steam coils will build scale on their surfaces. A scale build up of 1/32” can reduce heating efficiency by 2%. Lime scale deposits conduct only 3% of the amount of heat as an equivalent thickness and area of steel. The heat exchangers should be inspected monthly and descaled periodically.

Gas fired burners should be serviced twice a year as part of a preventive maintenance contract with a suitable service contractor. The burner inlet filters will provide a minimum of one month
service in harsh conditions. They should be washed or replaced on a regular basis.

Plate and frame heat exchangers are external to the tank but they still require cleaning. The cleaner stage should be flushed with a chelated acid during off hours and the phosphate should be flushed with a chelated caustic.

Descaling - Scale removal using mechanical methods is difficult, time consuming and usually does not clean down to base metal. If the scale is not completely removed, it will quickly reform over the old deposit.

Chemical removal methods are less difficult and faster. Actual time to descale will vary dependent on the size of the system but usually can be completed in 4 to 8 hours.

Acid descaling solutions are effective for removing lime scale and rust but they are not very effective at removing oily soils or product residues. Usually it will be necessary to thoroughly flush out the system with a hot (140-160 °F/60-71 °C) alkaline type of material to remove the oils and grease that build up in the washer.

Once the system is degreased, rinsed and drained, the plumbing should be inspected to see if any parts are in need of repair or adjustment. Heavy deposits should be chipped away and the sludge should be removed from the bottom of the tank by flushing with a hose or

Pretesting the descaling material on a small sample will help to determine the correct material and concentration. Usually, lime scale and rust will form carbon dioxide in an acid solution. Some types of scale, such as those formed by iron phosphates or combination cleaner/ phosphates, may produce little or no reaction by exposure to acid based descalers. In cases where pretesting an acid solution does not produce satisfactory results, an alkaline solution should be tested. In general, the descaling product will be opposite in pH to the process solution that is being removed. Descaling should typically be done once every six months to one year.

Regular service reports should be kept that document the condition of the washer, including the nozzles, operating temperature, pressures, general appearance, conveyor and washer interior condition, etc. Monitoring the washer condition with this report will give the operator
the information necessary to schedule the maintenance in advance. Any existing leaks in the washer will be enlarged when the descale
solution is run through the system.

Descaling Procedure

1. While the solution is hot, remove as much free oil as possible by overflowing or use of an automatic skimmer.

2. Drain the solution from the tank.

3. Flush sludge and solids to drain.

4. Refill the tank with water.

5. Add a high caustic, high chelate alkaline descaler to reach 4-6 oz./gal.

6. Heat and circulate the solution for 1-2 hours at the highest possible heat. A low foam detergent may be added at 0.5-1.0 % by volume to help displace oils. 

7. Allow the solution to remain static for 20-30 minutes.

8. Overflow to displace surface oils or use an automatic skimmer to remove oils.

9. Drain the solution from the tank. (treat the solution if necessary or drain to a holding tank.

10. Flush sludge to drain.

11. Remove the nozzles.

12. Fill the tank 2/3 full with fresh cold water.
13. Add 10 % by volume, inhibited descaling acid (muriatic). To minimize fuming in the plant , use a low volume chemical hand pump with the discharge line immersed below the solution level in the tank.

14. Circulate and heat the solution to 120 °F (49 °C) for 1-2 hours. 

15. Drain the solution from the tank (neutralize the solution prior to discharge)

16. Flush sludge from the tank bottom.

17. Inspect the nozzles, clean by soaking in a descale solution, repair or replace as necessary and re-install them in the washer.

18. Refill the tank with fresh water and heat.

19. Add 0.1-1.0 % by volume of proprietary type phosphate. Circulate washer for 5-10 minutes.

20. Drain the tank and rinse sludge from bottom.

21. Fill the tank to operating level.

22. Charge the tank with the appropriate processing chemical product.

Pump Screens - Pump screens should be removed daily and rinsed with high pressure.

Water Feed System - Water replenishment systems should be checked daily to make sure that valves are functioning properly and that there are no leaks.

Tunnel Exhaust Fans - The washer tunnel exhaust fans are there to prevent vapor roll-out. The exhaust fan belts and blades should be checked for wear monthly. If vapor roll-out is a problem,
and the fans are in good working condition, the problem could be competing plant air flows or improper exhaust volume or design. The washer manufacturer should be consulted before
making any changes in the exhaust design.

Controls - Thermocouples, temperature gauges and pressure gauges should be calibrated at least once a year.
Pumps - Pumps should be greased as recommended by the manufacturer and inspected monthly for vibration, leaks, or overheating.

Conveyor - The rail and shroud inside the washer should be inspected monthly for wear.

Chemical Maintenance & Titration
Successful pretreatment depends on control of the process. The factors that affect the performance of a spray washer are the amount of exposure time, the pressure at which the solution is sprayed, the concentration of the chemical in the solution, and the temperature of the

To achieve the desired level of quality that the pretreatment system was designed for, the chemistry of the washer must be carefully monitored, recorded, and maintained. Specific ranges of operation must be established and controlled. The specific variables to be controlled are process time (line speed), temperature, chemical concentration, pH, and total dissolved solids.

Titration is the test process used to check the chemical concentration of a solution. Acid base titration is based on the fact that it will take a certain amount of an acid with a known concentration to neutralize a sample of an alkaline cleaner and a certain amount of an alkaline
solution to neutralize a sample of an acid solution. A solution called an indicator is added to the solution sample prior to titrating. The indicator is usually an organic liquid such as phenolphthalein that will cause the sample to change color when it is neutralized.

Cleaner Stages - Check the chemical concentration, temperature and pressure at the start of a shift, middle and end. Record all information and make adjustments as needed.

Rinses - Check the total dissolved solids and conductivity three times a shift. The TDS and pH should not be allowed to rise very much over the initial raw water readings. Adjustment of the overflow volume will help to control the rinse water quality. Also, tanks should be drained and cleaned on a regular basis as necessary. The tank dump schedule and overflow rates are related. If a comparatively low volume of water is overflowed, say 1.5 GPM, the rinses may need to be dumped as frequently as once a day. If the overflow rate is 5 to 7 GPM, the rinses can be typically be dumped once a week. In cases where maintenance of the water quality is critical, softened water can be helpful. Automated rinse control based on conductivity is also possible. The key is to maintain good quality rinse water with low TDS and near neutral pH. 


TDS can be measured with a dissolved solids meter, or a Conductivity/ TDS pocket tester, measuring how conductive a water sample is in units of micromhos (mMho). Pure water, such as distilled water, conducts electricity very poorly and so it will give a dissolved solids or conductivity reading close to 0 micromho. Ionic matter, such as acids, alkalis, water hardness, or salts, will make the water much more conductive and the dissolved solids reading will rise. The more dissolved matter in the solution, the more conductive it becomes.

In industrial applications, conductivity may be measured for one of three reasons;

1. To measure the purity of the raw incoming water or softened water and the suitability of that water for a given pretreatment purpose.

2. To measure the level of contamination of a rinse water solution. When conductivity rises above a certain level, the tank is usually overflowed or dumped and recharged.

3. To determine the concentration of a chemical added to the water for a certain process. The chemical may be added until a certain level of conductivity is reached.

To measure the conductivity of a sample solution, make sure that the meter is calibrated (daily) as described below: 

1. Rinse the TDS meter cell cup 3 times with distilled water.

2. Rinse the TDS meter cell cup with the conductivity standardization solution and then fill it with standardization solution to at least 1/4" above the upper electrode.

3. Select the appropriate meter range for the standardization solution used.

4. Push button to read conductivity.

5. If the conductivity reading does not match the conductivity standardization solution conductivity, +/- 1 %, remove the bottom of the conductivity meter and adjust the calibration control as necessary. Replace the meter battery if the conductivity reading of the meter is less than full scale when the calibration control is adjusted to its maximum setting.

After calibration, follow the procedure as listed below:
1. Rinse the cell cup three times with the solution to be measured.

2. Fill the cell cup to at least 1/4" above the upper electrode.

3. Select the anticipated conductivity range using the four position switch at the front of the meter: 10 for mMho, 100 for conductivity between 50 and 500, and 1000 for conductivity between 500 and 5000.

4. Push the button to read the meter.

5. Multiply the reading by the range setting number (10, 100 or 1000) to get the final value in micromhos.

If the conductivity of your solution is above 5000 you must dilute the solution with distilled water before measuring and then multiply the resulting reading by the dilution factor as shown below. Conductivity of ml of diluted Conductivity of x = diluted sample sample original solution The Myron L Model 532 MI TDS meter is temperature compensated for solution samples between 50 and 160 °F. If the solution to be tested is outside of this range, it should be warmed or cooled as necessary before testing.

The temperature of the solution can be determined with a thermometer in degrees Fahrenheit. The thermometer must be immersed past the groove on the lower portion of the stem in order to get accurate readings. To convert degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius, use the following formula:

[( °F - 32) x 5] / 9 = °C

pH Measurement 
pH is a measurement of the relative acidity or alkalinity of a solution. 7 is considered neutral, acidic solutions are below 7, and alkaline solutions are above 7. The pH can be measured with a pH meter, a pocket type pH meter, or pH paper. Measurement of the pH provides a numerical value to relative acidity or alkalinity, an important feature in the controlling the performance of a solution. 

For a solution to perform as designed, the desired pH must be known and the solution must be controlled. To illustrate the point, consider the manufacturing of jelly. In order to jell the fruit, the mixture must be slightly acidic. At a pH below 2.6, the mixture will not jell; at 2.6, a white precipitate forms and the jelly unmarketable; at 2.8, there is a separation of water droplets from the mixture; at 3.1, the mixture will produce a jelly with maximum stiffness; a pH of 3.2 will produce medium stiffness, and at a pH of 3.3 the jelly will be thin. Above a pH of 3.5, the mixture will not jell at all!

So within a few tenths of pH unit, the mixture will go from no jell to maximum stiffness and back again to no jell. This clearly illustrates the importance of tight control of the pH of a solution. 

There are a broad range of acids, from sulfuric acid that can dissolve metal to boric acid which can be used as an eye wash. They all produce hydrogen ions (H+) in solution. The measure of acidity is the numerical value of the Hydrogen ion concentration. Expressed in chemical terms, the numerical values for Hydrogen ion concentrations are usually extremely small fractions such as 1/10,000,000. The pH scale was developed to avoid the use of such inconvenient numbers. The pH scale is defined mathematically as the negative logarithm of the Hydrogen ion concentration or the power to which 10 must be raised to equal the Hydrogen ion concentration. The name pH comes from the power of Hydrogen. This mathematical transaction provides us with a convenient scale from 0 for an acid solution of unit strength to 7 for a neutral solution of pure water.

Alkalis owe their alkalinity to the Hydroxyl ions (OH-) which they produce in solution. Alkalinity can be measured on the same pH scale as acidity, from 7 to 14.

Simply put, any number below 7.0 is an acid and for each whole number of decline, you increase the intensity of (H+ ion concentration) the acid by a factor of 10X. Any number above 7.0 is considered alkaline and for each whole number increase, you increase the intensity of (OH- ion concentration) the alkaline by a factor of 10X. In a solution with the same number of H+ ions and OH- ions are present, the pH is 7.0. 

Water from the tap may be a little on the alkaline side due to the addition of caustic soda lye to make the water ”fit to drink.“ Proper measurement and adjustment of the water is essential to the pretreatment process. To ensure that the measurement is accurate, the meter must be properly calibrated.

Calibration by the single point method is described below.

1. Connect the pH electrode to the instrument and remove the protective cap from the electrode.

2. Rinse the pH electrode with distilled water and immerse it in pH buffer 7.00.*

3. Turn on the instrument by setting the three position rocker switch to the ON position.

4. Set the TEMPERATURE control to that of the pH buffer (use a Tel Tru GT 100R or other suitable thermometer to obtain the pH buffer temperature).

5. Adjust the STANDARDIZE control to read the buffer value corresponding to the buffer temperature. Refer to Table 1 below for these buffer values.

6. Remove the pH electrode from the pH buffer solution. Rinse the electrode with distilled water.

The pH meter is now calibrated and ready for use. The temperature control knob on the pH meter must be set to the temperature of the solution that the pH probe is in.

The pH electrode must not be allowed to dry off. When not in use, the electrode should be soaked in pH buffer solution. The electrode should not be used in solutions above 140 °F (60 °C) and it should be protected from freezing. The electrode should be rinsed with distilled water before being transferred from the test solution to the buffer solution and it should be shaken off to reduce solution contamination whenever it is transferred from one solution to another.

If a coating has formed on the electrode tip, try to remove it by stirring briskly in a detergent solution or by spraying with a squirt bottle. If this does not work and the meter responds slowly or improperly, the glass bulb can be gently cleaned with a soft brush. If it still does not work
properly, replace the bulb or meter.

pH buffer solutions should be checked periodically by comparing their pH to the pH of fresh buffer solution. Replace the solution when a pH difference of 0.1 or greater is measured.

To be Continued.....

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We are pleased to introduce ourselves as the exclusive distributors of Luena PE wax from Leuna Polymer Gmbh Germany in India and are now offering oxidized and non-oxidized waxes ( manufactured by high pressure polymerization ) for a variety of functions and applications.

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Dear Vivek
Through our industrial division British Acorn specialise in the specification and supply of high performance thermoplastic coatings for niche market applications which include Automotive, Battery Boxes, Cable Support Systems, Fire Extinguisher Linings (EN3 approved), Fencing, Street
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Hi Vivek,
Thanks for the information and links sent with regard to powder coating. The information and links are extremely good. I hope one of these days when I read through all the information I can comfortably call myself an EXPERT in powder coating. Thanks again,
Ram Ramachandran
Hello Vivek Soley,
I have been refering to your website and find it Informative. The notes published on the Powder manual are interesting and of much use to the Industry. Expecting more such contributions from the IPC. 
Best Regards, Ratnakar Gokhale Product Manager(Powder Coatings) Akzo Nobel Coatings India Private Limited
Dear Sir,
I am looking for electrostatic conductive putty which I can use to cover the minor imperfections and pits before I can spray powder over it. Can you please advise manufacturers for this type of special putty? Thanks, Ashish Agarwal, Dehradun

Moderator:  You have come to the right place. There is a response to your query on the message board. Please visit the message board .
During a telephonic discussion Ms Madhu who called from New Jersey, USA, mentioned that her husband has a powder coating plant in New jersey. She Inquired about the potential of powder coating in India.
During a telephonic discussion Mr. Amrit Rekhi of Polycoat Powders Ltd. appreciated  IPC's efforts and cause. "Polycoat will continue to support India Powder Coating", he said. 
During a visit to Indore, Mr. Bhavesh Desai of Mitsuba Systems informed us about the developments in Mitsuba and shared his views on the Indian Powder Coating market. "The IPC-e-newsletter keeps us informed about the developments around the world", he said.


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