India Powder Coating  
  IPC-E Newsletter: February 2003  
  Welcome to the February edition of the IPC e-newsletter.

This edition of the newsletter contains:

News features.
The Powder Coating Manual (Part 25)
Exhibitions and Conferences in February 2004 and March 2004

If you have information you would like to have included in this newsletter, please contact the moderator using the details given at the end of each newsletter.

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    News Features      
Mission To Mars 
Off Topic


Two  traveling robotic geologist, "Spirit" and "Opportunity",   from NASA have landed on Mars and returned stunning images of the area around their  landing sites. The main task for both rovers in coming months is to explore the areas around their landing sites for evidence in rocks and soils about whether those areas ever had environments that were watery and possibly suitable for sustaining life.  Congratulations to Pete Theisinger, Richard Cook, Dr. Charles Elachi, Rob Manning, and all the NASA scientists. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Exploration Rover project for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. Images and additional information about the project are available from JPL at  and from Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., at  . 

   Informercial from MITSUBA SYSTEMS (INDIA) PVT LTD,  
This efficiency meter is used to the check the quality of powder guns as well as powders. This ergonomically designed meter with a digital display shows high voltage charge in the powder cloud as well as carona gun tip voltage. This meter also displays +ve & -ve polarities, & checks the ground quality.

The meter is suitable for both Automatic and Manual Guns it is a useful tool for powder manufacturers to check the chargeability of powders they are manufacturing and for end users to check the charging quality of the powder they are purchasing. End users can also ensure that their gun is performing to peak levels by monitoring the gun tip voltage.

For more information please contact :

TEL:    91-22-2631 8633/2633 4735/56924151-52-53      FAX:   91-22-56924154.
Email :               Website :


Advertorial from British Acorn Co., Ltd

DuPont® Polymer Powders 
Thermoplastic Metal Coatings

DuPont Polymer Powders have over four decades of experience in the manufacture of thermoplastic powders and the design of unique formulations, Today the company has established itself as a global market leader for tough 'high build' Plastic Coatings Abcite® and Flamulit® plus Coathylene® Formulation Additives for BMC / SMC.

Through the Asian regional offices of British Acorn, a selected range of DuPont quality coatings will be introduced in India to support the increasing technical performance criteria required by the developing automotive, cable supports, fire extinguisher and pipe coating manufacturers products for both home and export market consumption.

Pipe Coating

With an increasing choice of coating materials in the globalizing world for Pipe and Pipe  Fittings,  the business logic and benefits of using tough, high  build polymer coatings such as DuPont's Abcite®  and Flamulit® range focus on :-

  Environmental safety.
  Limited capital cost of process plant for small production runs.
  Shelf life of powder stock in Tropical climates.

Abcite® and Flamulit® provide a tough single layer barrier protection coating with film thicknesses of 500 to 2,500 microns achievable, depending on the grade and application process. Selected grades 
conform to DIN standards for polyolefin pipe coatings. 

They can be applied by Fluidized Bed, Flock Spraying
and Rotational Tumble methods to pre-treated, clean metal substrates without the use of adhesive primers and comply with international fire safety and potable water regulations. 

Abcite® and Flamulit® Benefits:

  Long-term corrosion protection.
  High impact strength.
  Adhere well to pretreated metal surfaces without an adhesion promoter.
  Do not propagate microbe growth.
  Smooth, non-porous surface.
  Excellent resistance to most waterborne pollutants.
  Physiologically and toxicologically safe.
  Conforms to potable water regulations

For more information please contact :
British Acorn Co., Ltd.
Lakeside Offices
8/25-28 New Rachadapisek Road,
Bangkok 10110
Tel : ++66 2-229-4300/3
H/P: ++66 1-832-2172
Fax :++66 2-229-4315
Email :  
Website : 

DuPont: Organizational alignment announced
Coatings Flash - January 19, 2004
DuPont announced that it is aligning its organizational structure to implement the customer- and market-focused growth and productivity actions announced on Dec. 1, 2003. "This alignment will greatly enhance our ability to deliver over $1 billion in revenue growth every year," said DuPont Chairman and CEO Charles O. Holliday, Jr. "By streamlining our internal structure and leveraging functional capabilities, we will enable our businesses to focus on meeting the needs of customers wherever they are in the world. We will fully capitalize on the global scope and scale of DuPont to win in the marketplace and achieve our mission of sustainable growth." The organizational alignment involves all businesses, regions and functions. 

DuPont Performance Coatings Launches Products in India
Jan 12, 2004

The DuPont Performance Coatings business of DuPont India has launched the DuPont™ Duxone® paint mixing system, a global economy tint line, which provides quality top coats (in solid and metallic colors) and clear coats for customers who want to upgrade from conventional paints. 

This product system will open the door to a new segment that was not being served by DuPont Performance Coatings. In addition to the Duxone® system, the business has also launched DuPont™ Lucite® Super 1K, a range of products consisting of primers, putties, and thinners.

DuPont automotive coatings unit and Kansai Paint to end joint venture relationships 
Coatings Flash - January 12, 2004

DuPont and Kansai Paint, Ltd., have agreed to amicably terminate their automotive coatings joint venture relationships due to incompatible global strategies, Marty M. McQuade, vice president and general manager of DuPont Herberts Automotive Systems and Katsuya Sera, president of Kansai Paint Company, Ltd., announced. DuPont and Kansai operate three joint ventures that provide coatings to Japanese auto makers in North America and the United Kingdom. The joint ventures were formed to supply and service the automotive coatings needs of Japan-headquartered auto companies for their operations in the U.K. and North America. The joint ventures will continue to service customers for a one- to two-year transition period. Celebrates Third Year by Offering Special Incentives on Epoxy Resins

January 29, 2004 - has announced that it is offering special incentives to registered buyers and existing customers as part of its three-year anniversary celebration., set up by the Epoxy Products & Intermediates (EP&I) business of The Dow Chemical Company as a no-frills purchasing channel, is the only global e-marketplace dedicated exclusively to buyers of epoxy resins and related products.

Incentives are also available to those who register online for a free purchasing account before February 26, 2004

"We are pleased to offer special incentives to our valued customers as a way of saying thank you," said John Everett, global leader. "We have also chosen to extend the offer to those who have not yet tried because we want them to discover for themselves what our existing customers already know -that buying through the site is a convenient, economical and stress-free purchasing experience."

Everett said those benefits have helped turn the vast majority of first-time buyers into repeat buyers. "It’s those coveted repeat customers that help mark a successful e-business."

The three-year-old e-commerce site reduces costs by eliminating technical and other services, following strict business rules and streamlining the order process. The business rules are designed to reduce paperwork, negotiation time and transaction costs. The rules include ordering in fixed quantities, a fixed payment term and penalties for order changes and cancellations. The complete business rules are accessible from the site in nine languages: English, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, German, French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese.

"If you are looking for a way to order a quality product quickly and easily, have no need for sales and technical support and can work with our straightforward business rules, then is the way to go," said Everett. "You just point and click and it’s a done deal, freeing up time and money so you can be more productive and competitive."

The site has enjoyed significant growth since its launch. Not only has it built a substantial base of customers, but it has also seen strong double digit sales growth each year. All of this has taken place against the backdrop of the dotcom fizzle, slower than expected e-commerce adoption rates across the industry and the worst economic conditions facing the epoxy industry in decades.

Everett says further sales growth for is expected to come in part from the site’s expansion last year to the People’s Republic of China. Dow epoxy products for delivery there will come from the company’s new 41,000 metric tons per annum converted epoxy resin plant at its Zhangjiagang site in China.

In addition to China, formulators of coatings, composites and adhesives can purchase products and have them delivered to locations in North America, Latin America, Western Europe, Central Europe, The Middle East, Japan, Korea and Taiwan.

Product pricing is regularly updated on Prices are listed in U.S. dollars, Euro, Yen, and Yuan.

For more information, buyers can go directly to, take the quick site tour, register on-line for a free purchasing account and sign-on for the site’s free monthly newsletter (currently distributed to a community of about 4,000 recipients).

EP&I is a leading global supplier of epoxy resins and related products to a broad range of industries. Epoxy products from Dow are used as a primary component in protective coatings, electrical laminates, structural and corrosion resistant composites, adhesives and a variety of other applications.

Dow is a leading science and technology company that provides innovative chemical, plastic and agricultural products and services to many essential consumer markets. With annual sales of approximately $30 billion, Dow serves customers in more than 170 countries and a wide range of markets that are vital to human progress, including food, transportation, health and medicine, personal and home care, and building and construction, among others. Committed to the principles of Sustainable Development, Dow and its 50,000 employees seek to balance economic, environmental and social responsibilities . 

Goodlass Nerolac net up 51%

Goodlass Nerolac has recorded a 51 per cent increase in its net profit at Rs 16.94 crore for the third quarter ended December 31, 2003, against Rs 11.25 crore in the corresponding quarter of the previous year. Net sales increased 16.51 per cent to Rs 207.53 crore (Rs 178.11 crore). 

For the nine months ended December 31, 2003, the company registered a net profit of Rs 44.65 crore against Rs 31.19 crore in the corresponding period of the previous year, a rise of 43.1 per cent. Net sales rose 17.1 per cent to Rs 578.8 crore (Rs 494.25 crore). 

PNB JV Keen On Pension Foray 

Financial Express
NEW DELHI, JAN 13: The joint venture (JV) of PNB, Vijaya Bank, Berger Paints and US-based Principal Group has evinced interest in the interim pension fund regulatory and development authority (PFRDA) for foraying into the green-field sector. Confirming this, Punjab National Bank chairman SS Kohli told PTI the JV plans to offer group insurance along with the pension scheme. <more>

Berger Paints in 1:2 bonus issue plan 
Financial Express
Berger Paints today said it will come out with a bonus issue for its existing shareholders in the ratio of one share for every two shares held. 

The company board, which met today, approved the bonus issue subject to the consent of the members at an extraordinary general meeting to be held on March 8, 2004

Asian Paints Q3 Net Declines 5%; Net Sales A Shade Better 
Financial Express
MUMBAI, JAN 28: Asian Paints (India) Ltd has posted a 5 per cent decline in net profit for the third quarter ended December 31, 2003 at Rs 41.47 crore as compared to Rs 43.67 crore during the corresponding period previous fiscal. However, net sales for the company during the quarter under review increased by 1.3 per cent to Rs 450.27 crore from Rs 444.45 crore in the corresponding quarter of the last financial year. 

Local job Coater finds himself in Hospital on 1st of Jan.
Nirmal Pandey who runs a powder coating plant in Indore found himself in a hospital in the New Year after remaining unconscious for more than ten hours. Nirmal was on a routine visit to a customer on his two wheeler when he suddenly lost his balance, fell down and became unconscious. He was noticed by a nearby shopkeeper. He found his residence telephone number on his mobile phone diary. 

He was immediately rushed to the hospital for emergency medical treatment. A crack was noticed in his skull. Pandey had to spend a week in the hospital before recovering. The total recovery may take several weeks. 

Ted Eveleth Named Cyclics CEO; Jim Mihalich to Lead Sales for Americas 
Tim Ullman, Director,Corporate Communications, Cyclics Corporation,Schenectady, NY

SCHENECTADY, N.Y.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Jan. 8, 2004--The Cyclics Corporation announced changes in management responsibility and the addition of a sales director for the Americas. Ted Eveleth will serve as President and CEO, charting the company's strategic direction while maintaining his duties in global operations and finance. Former CEO, John Ciovacco will lead the global marketing effort and serve as Chairman of Cyclics' Board of Directors. Both are part of the five member team that purchased 48 patents from GE Plastics to found Cyclics in 1999. 
Cyclics is also pleased to announce the hiring of Jim Mihalich as Sales Director, Americas. Jim is responsible for leading the CBT(R) resin sales effort in both North and South America. He has a technical background with sales and marketing experience with GE Plastics, Shakespeare Monofilament and Hummingbird Colors, a plastic color concentrates manufacturer. Jim has a BS in Chemical Engineering from the University of Pennsylvania and an MBA from the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School. 

Cyclics Corporation, headquartered in Schenectady, New York, manufactures innovative plastics that offer breakthroughs in processing, making new products possible and changing the economics of existing ones. Cyclics has an alliance with Dow Automotive to develop CBT resins for automotive applications. Cyclics products are useful in structural composites, compounding and powder coating, where the water-like viscosity of these resins allow for excellent processing, extremely high filler volumes and enable processors to improve performance and productivity.

Eclipse Chairman Emeritus A.C. Perks Dies
PH's Weekly Newsletter 

Arthur Campbell Perks, chairman emeritus of Eclipse Inc., Rockford, Ill., passed away Wednesday, January 7, at the age of 81.
Hailed as the “industrial combustion pioneer” of Eclipse Inc., A.C. “Cam” Perks had been the long-time leader and driving force of Eclipse and its vision of providing innovative thermal solutions for industrial processes. Early on, Cam created a global vision for Eclipse Inc., which led to a worldwide network of sales, engineering and manufacturing facilities. He also positioned Eclipse at the forefront of technological advancements of reliable, efficient heat processing equipment for the industrial combustion market.
Garnet McKee, Cam’s uncle, founded Eclipse in 1908 as the Central Appliance Co. in Rockford, Ill. Cam worked in virtually every department of the company and was named president of Eclipse Fuel Engineering Co., as it was known then, in 1950. Under Perks leadership, Eclipse expanded its research and engineering programs; acquired companies; and began its expansion into the international market by creating its first foreign subsidiary, Eclipse of Canada, in Toronto, and establishing joint-venture companies in Mexico, Australia, England, Holland and Japan. In 1970, he became chairman of the board of directors. In 2002, he was named chairman emeritus. In 2004, he observed his 62nd year of service with Eclipse. 
The Eclipse vision continues today under the leadership of his sons, Doug, chairman of the board, and Lach, senior vice president/general manager. 

BASF Coatings is System Supplier at Volkswagen Plant in Puebla
Chemie.DE Newsletter (english), 01/21/2004
BASF Coatings de México is the new system supplier for automobile manufacturer Volkswagen AG in Mexico. The agreement was made for an initial period of five years and applies to the whole car body pai...<more>

Henkel strengthens its Adhesives business in Asia
Chemie.DE Newsletter (english), 01/21/2004
01/14/2004 - The Henkel Group acquired the Korean company Lucky Silicone Industry Co. Ltd. at the end of 2003. This enterprise, which was founded in 1978 and has a workforce of 46, primarily develops, produces and...<more>

Gilles Recoules is new Director of Marketing and Sales Wolff Cellulosics 

Gilles Recoules took over as head of marketing at Wolff Cellulosics at the beginning of the year. The previous Director of Marketing & Sales, Dominikus von Pescatore, has taken on an assignment at Bayer MaterialScience as Country Group Chairman in Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar,
Laos und Cambodia.

Gilles Recoules is 42 years old and was raised in France. The first step in his career took the chemical engineer to Sumitomo Rubber. From 1989 he worked for 11 years in marketing at Bayer France for the Business Groups rubber, plastics and specialty chemicals.

Kemira strengthens its coatings business in Hungary
Coatings Flash - January 12, 2004

The Finland-based chemicals group Kemira has strengthened its coatings operations in Hungary. Tikkurila Coatings Oy, responsible for Kemira's industrial coatings activities, has acquired Akzo Nobel Coatings' general industrial liquid coatings activities in Hungary. The deal took effect on 19 December 2003.
Sales for Akzo Nobel Coatings' general industrial business in Hungary are EUR 1.2 million in 2003. The manufacturing of general industrial coatings will be transferred from Akzo Nobel's location in Tiszaújváros, Hungary, to Tikkurila's production facilities in Vantaa, Finland, in six months.

HALOX. introduces two new corrosion inhibitors, HALOX 710 and HALOX 720, for super-durable powder coating applications.
Michael Augustyn

On January 26th, 2004 HALOX. introduced two new corrosion inhibitors for super-durable powder coating applications: "HALOX 710" has shown
superior performance on aluminum and iron phosphate substrates, while "HALOX 720" has shown good cost-effective performance on aluminum
and iron phosphate substrates.

HALOX 710 and HALOX 720 are free flowing, non-refractive white powders with low moisture content. The products are easy to use and can be incorporated during the pre-mix stage of powder coating manufacture. HALOX 710 and HALOX 720 are designed for use in powder coatings, but
are effective in non-powder applications as well.

HALOX, a division of the Hammond Group, Inc., is a market leader in corrosion inhibitors for the paint and coatings industry and currently markets corrosion inhibitors through its global distributor network.

HALOX and the Hammond Group, Inc. are based in Hammond, Indiana.

DaimlerChrysler Japan to reduce VOCs
Coatings Flash - January 12, 2004

DaimlerChrysler Japan Co., Ltd. will begin the process of switching to water-based paints at its Vehicle Preparation Centers (VPCs). In collaboration with DuPont Kabushiki Kaisha, the VPCs in Toyohashi and Hitachi are implementing the process to reduce emissions of VOCs from their paint shops. The switching process will first be applied to Mercedes-Benz brilliant silver, the color having the highest share among the Mercedes cars treated at the VPCs.

Akzo Nobel expands powder coatings operations in China
Arnhem, the Netherlands, January 20, 2004 - Akzo Nobel will expand its powder coatings operations in China. Two new factories will be constructed during 2004 in a move which will further build on Akzo Nobel's world leadership status in powder coatings and strengthen its position in China, the fastest growing powder market in the world.

Chemcraft acquired Paramount Paint & Lacquer
Coatings Flash - January 26, 2004

The North American Producer of industrial coatings, Chemcraft International, Inc. of Winston-Salem, North Carolina, announced the purchase of the assets of Paramount Paint & Lacquer Company, a division of Surface Protection Industries, effective January 15, 2004. Paramount Paint & Lacquer specializes in high quality paints and lacquers for the wood finishing industries. The Company is based in Los Angeles, California, serving its customers in Southern California and Mexico.

Company to help fill Imokalee airport center
January 16, 2004
The cobwebs have been swept away. And there are signs of life at the once barren manufacturing building at the Immokalee Regional Airport. After sitting empty for more than a year, it has finally found someone to dress it up and call it home.  Florida Architectural Products Inc., a newly created company, plans to manufacture and distribute window coverings from the 10,500-square-f oot building, including shades, blinds and shutters.  The company's owner has promised to create the 22 jobs required by state grants that Collier County received for the project.  Collier County faced the possibility of having to pay back more than $700,000 in state money it received for the project because the job creation requirements had not been met.  County officials spent much of last year trying to find a company to move into the building at Immokalee's industrial park.  The project is the second phase of the Immokalee Manufacturing and Technology Center at the airport. 

Florida Architectural Products signed a lease in December and it took effect Jan. 1.  "We are very pleased with it," said Denny Baker, director of the county's Financial Administration and Housing Department.  "Of course, the proof in the pudding is creating the 22 jobs. We have no reservations that the jobs won't be created. We expect them to be created." Florida Architectural Products plans to hire 10 people by March and 12 more by the end of the year. The company's owner and president, Bill Tucker, said there is the potential to add more jobs down the line.  Hiring should start in the next three weeks, he said. 

The company is primarily looking for finishing sanders and equipment operators. Training will be provided.  Tucker started cleaning up the neglected building last weekend.  "It's pretty dusty," he said.  "There are a lot of cobwebs." 

Before Tucker moves in, the Collier County Airport Authority will make some improvements to the building.  The powder-coating equipment in the building, which was incomplete, will be converted to a station that can be used to do finishing with wet paint.  Powder coating is a dry finishing process often used on furniture and metal equipment. Originally, it was thought that a company might move into the building to do powder coating for the aerospace industry and other manufacturers based at the Immokalee Manufacturing and Technology Center. But that idea hit some roadblocks. 

Larry Fox, an owner of Global Manufacturing Technologies, is the brains behind the manufacturing center. It's a so-called "incubator," designed to attract and help grow manufacturing businesses in Collier County.  The Foxes were instrumental in getting the first and second phases of the center built. On Aug. 3, 1999, Global Manufacturing entered into an agreement with the county that required it to occupy the building and create the 22 jobs. But the company was unable to keep its promise after hitting a snag with the county over the lease.  Besides being unable to secure a lease with the county, the Foxes faced a lot of questions about the building. Mishaps with the project prompted an internal audit and left some local government officials wondering whether the county got its money's worth. 

Among some of the troubling findings in the audit were that the project was over budget, even though it was cut back from 20,000 to 10,500 square feet and the construction of the building was delayed for almost a year.  The audit attempts to explain what went wrong with the project, without pointing any fingers. 

Management of the grant was left up to the Airport Authority, though it should have been overseen by the county's Financial Administration and Housing Department.  The manufacturing building — meant to help diversify Collier County's economy — received more than $1.3 million in state and county money. None of that money went to the Foxes and they weren't involved in the construction of the building.  Collier County commissioners terminated the county's agreement with Global Manufacturing Technologies in June. 

Last year, the Department of Community Affairs agreed to give the county another year to create the 22 jobs. The deadline was extended to March 27 of this year. Because the required jobs aren't expected to be created until later in the year, the county has asked for another one-year extension. Baker said he expects the state to approve the request.  "They've already given us a verbal yes," he said. 

The Airport Authority and the county will spend up to $21,000 on improvements to the building, which will include the conversion of the powder-coating equipment, new cubicles and a hallway at the entrance. The authority has agreed to take as much as $8,000 out of its operating budget for the changes, and the county received a $13,000 federal job creation grant that can be used on the building.  Baker said Tucker will likely spend some of his own money on improvements because the cost of what he wants to do is likely to exceed what county government and the Airport Authority have agreed to spend. 

Tucker has signed a three-year lease, with the option to extend it for two years. As an incentive to get Tucker to sign the lease, the county offered to cut his rent payment in half the first six months.  Tucker will pay $2 per square foot the first half of the year, and $4 per square foot the rest of the year. That means his rent for the first year will be less than $40,000.  After the first year, the rent will go up to $4.12 a square foot, or about $43,260 a year. From there, it will continue to increase by 3 percent a year.  Tucker said he thinks the industrial park in Immokalee is the ideal place to locate his company. 
He said he learned about the building after reading newspaper stories about it sitting empty.  "I think we came along at the right time," he said. 

Tucker spent 29 years working in management for JCPenney, mostly in northern California. At JCPenney, he worked as a manager of the company's custom window coverings division.  Tucker has also worked for several independent window- covering manufacturers. He recently decided to strike out on his own after moving to Florida about 21/2 years ago. Originally, Tucker moved here thinking he would retire. But the 59-year-old quickly changed his mind. 

"I really wasn't ready to retire," he said. "I have to keep busy." Down the road, Tucker plans to expand his business and manufacture moldings, designer cornices, framing and other products from wood.  Tammie Nemecek, executive director of the Economic Development Council of Collier County, said the company is exactly the type of business her agency has been looking to attract to Immokalee. The EDC worked with Florida Architectural Products to secure the lease for the building.  "We are happy that we found a tenant that matches the need of the building and that can add jobs to Collier County and especially in Immokalee," Nemecek said. 

"This is the tip of the iceberg as far as opportunity for job creation in Immokalee."  The EDC has put more of a focus on creating jobs in Immokalee in the last year.  In December, it opened an office in Immokalee. The new office has two employees, one to focus on growing existing businesses and the other to concentrate on bringing more companies to Collier County's most economically depressed community.  The EDC, in cooperation with the Collier County Airport Authority, which operates Immokalee Regional Airport, has also developed a campaign to market the Immokalee airport as the "Florida Tradeport." The campaign is intended to entice cargo operations and other companies to Immokalee that can take advantage of the airport and the many incentives available to businesses in the rural community. 

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1st International Coater`s Congress 2004
April 22-23, 2004
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    Exhibitions, Seminars, Course, Lectures  
1-5 February 2004, Oak Brook, Illinois, USA
For further information, go to:

3-5 February 2004, CNIT Paris-La Defense, France Further information:  

Polymers and Coatings Science
February 2 - 6, 2004 
Short Course; San Luis Obispo/USA
More Information from Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407, USA, Fax: +1 805 756-5500, ,  

31st Annual International Waterborne, High-Solids, and Powder Coatings Symposium
February 18 - 20, 2004 
Symposium; New Orleans/USA, More Information from, The University of Southern Mississippi, Department of Polymer Science, Dr. Robson F. Storey, P.O. Box 10063, 39406-0063 Hattiesburg, MS
USA, Fax: +1 601 266-62 62,  

Paint Technology
February 23 - 26, 2004 
Training Course; Teddington/Great Britain, More Information from Paint Research Association
8 Waldegrave Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 8LD, Great Britain, Fax: +44 20 8943 4705,  

New Materials and Coatings for the Automotive Industry
March 1 - 2, 2004 
Conference; Munich/Germany 
More Information from, MSTI, P. O. Box 1050, 65836 Sulzbach/Ts, Germany
Fax: +49 6196 585-485, ,  

Applied Rheology for the Coatings Industry
March 1 - 1, 2004 
Training Course; Teddington/Great Britain
More Information from, Paint Research Association, 8 Waldegrave Road,Teddington
Middlesex TW11 8LD, Great Britain, Fax: +44 20 8943 4705, ,  

March 1 - 4, 2004 
Exhibition, Conference; Moscow/Russia
More Information from, Maxima International Exhibitions, Profsoyuznaya Str., 3 of. 410
117036 Moscow, Russia , Fax: +7 (095) 124-7060,

Principles of Waterborne Coatings
March 8 - 9, 2004 
Training Course; Teddington/Great Britain
More Information from: Paint Research Association

March 8 - 11, 2004 
Exhibition; Paris/France
More Information from, Idexpo, 58, bd Paul Vaillant Couturier, 94246 L`Hay Les Roses Cedex, France, Fax: +33 (1) 46 65 82 45, ,  

Middle East Coatings Show 2004
March 9 - 10, 2004 
Exhibition, Congress; Dubai/United Arab Emirates
More Information from, dmg world media (uk) ltd, Queensway House, 2 Queensway
Redhill, RH1 1QS Surrey, Great Britain , Fax: +44 (1737) 85 50 34 ,  

Introduction to Coatings Science
March 15 - 18, 2004 
Course; Hattiesburg/USA
More Information from, The University of Southern Mississippi, Polymer Science Research Center
Box 10076, 39406-0076 Hattiesburg, MS, USA , Fax: +1 601 266-5504,,  

Practical Emulsion Polymerization Technology
March 15 - 18, 2004 
Seminar; Hattiesburg/USA
More Information from, The University of Southern Mississippi, Polymer Science Research Center, Deborah Witherby, P. O. Box 10076, 39406-0076 Hattiesburg, MS
USA, Fax: +1 601 266 5504, , 

Paint Defect Analysis Workshop
March 16 - December 18, 2004 
Workshop; London, Ontario/Canada 
More Information from, Paint Performance Consulting, 35585 Pound Road
Richmond, 48062 Michigan, USA, Fax: +1 586 727-27 24,

Powtech 2004/ExploRisk 2004
March 16 - 18, 2004 
Exhibition; Nuremberg/Germany
More Information from, Nürnberg Messe GmbH, Messezentrum, 90471 Nürnberg, Germany, Fax: +49 911 86 06-82 56, ,  

Coatings and Paint Technology Composition and Application Fundamentals
March 16 - 18, 2004 
Course; Ypsilanti
More Information from, Coatings Research Institute - Eastern Michigan University
430 W. Forest, MI 48197 Ypsilanti, USA, Fax: +1 734 4830085, 

European Coatings Conference:
Polyurethanes for High Performance Coatings III
March 18 - 19, 2004 
Congress; Berlin/Germany 
More Information from, Vincentz Network, P.O. Box 6247, 30062 Hannover, Germany
Fax: +49 (511) 99 10-279, ,

SITS 2004 - The Surface Treatments and Coatings Trade Exhibition
March 22 - 26, 2004 
Exhibition; Paris/France 
More Information from, Exposium, Stéphanie Collot, Paris, France, Fax: +33 1 49 68 54 84,  

What is Paint?
March 22, 2004 
Training Course; Teddington/Great Britain
More Information from, 
Paint Research Association

Powder Coating Technology
March 23 - 24, 2004 
Training Course; Teddington/Great Britain, 
More Information from, Paint Research Association
8 Waldegrave Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 8LD, Great Britain, Fax: +44 20 8943 4705   ,  

Iron Oxides for Colorant and Chemical Applications 2004
March 24 - 26, 2004 
Conference; Amsterdam/The Netherlands
More Information from, Intertech, Scott Stephenson, 19 Northbrook Drive, Portland, 04105 Maine
USA, Fax: +1 207 781 21 50, ,  

Colour Measurement & Colour Control
March 29 - 30, 2004 
Training Course; Teddington/Great Britain
More Information from,Paint Research Association
8 Waldegrave Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 8LD, Great Britain, Fax: +44 20 8943 4705, ,  

Rompaint 2004
March 30 - April 1, 2004 
Symposium, Exhibition; Bucharest/Romania
More Information from, ARTILAC, Theodor Pallady Av., 49A, 74585 Bucharest 3, Romania
Fax: +40 (21) 231 38 81, ,  

Waterborne Coatings
March 30 - April 1, 2004 
Course; Ypsilanti
More Information from, Coatings Research Institute, 430 W. Forest, MI 48197 Ypsilanti
USA, Fax: +1 734 483 0085,

Color Design and Technology
March 30 - April 1, 2004 
Course; Ypsilanti
More Information from, Coatings Research Institute - Eastern Michigan University
430 W. Forest, MI 48197 Ypsilanti, USA, Fax: +1 734 483 0085
, .  

Advanced Colour Measurement & Colour Control
March 31 - April 1, 2004 
Training Course; Teddington/Great Britain
More Information from, Paint Research Association, 8 Waldegrave Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 8LD, Great Britain, Fax: +44 20 8943 4705
, ,   

  Powder Coater’s Manual ------- Powder Application Equipment (Part - 25)  
The polarity of the charging electrode can be either positive or negative. A negative charge is generally preferred because ions can be generated in greater number with less arcing. The factors that affect corona charging are the gun-to-target distance, the velocity of the powder, the electrode and nozzle configuration and the presence of a well grounded part to act as a receiving electrode. Electrostatic field lines develop between the gun electrode and the grounded part and connect to the part at right angles. These field lines are more concentrated at sharp points, sometimes resulting in higher deposition on edges of the part surface. A great number of free ions are present in the space between the gun and the part. Powder particles exit the gun and capture some of the ions in the area and become charged. Many of the ions remain free. The charged powder and the remaining free ions travel along the field lines towards 
the grounded part. This combination of charged powder particles and free ions has a cumulative potential that is often referred to as “space charge.” In a corona charging system, the electric field near the part surface is comprised of the fields created by the discharge electrode of the gun and the space charge. This two fields combine to provide efficient deposition of the powder material on the grounded part.

Faraday Cage Effect
Large flat surfaces provide a perfect target for the strong electric fields created by the corona charging system. The same forces that provide efficient deposition on larger flat surfaces can create some problems on parts with more complex geometries. This creates the phenomenon known as Faraday cage effect, named for Mr. Michael Faraday who conducted many experiments of static electricity. Faraday areas are inside corners and recesses that are resistant to powder deposition. The electrostatic lines of force will tend to concentrate on the edges of the recess because there is less resistance to electrical forces than there is inside the recess. Powder will build rapidly on the edges, following the field lines, and much less powder will drift into the recesses. As the powder preferentially builds on the sharp edges and prominent ground points it produces an image field on the part surface and begins to become self-limiting. In addition, the conductive surface of the part shields the inside corners from the electrostatic field produced by the gun. Also, the air carrying the powder tends to swirl inside the Faraday cage area, sweeping powder away. This combination of forces makes coating of recesses one of the more difficult challenges faced by the powder coater. The only force that contributes to deposition inside the recess is the field created by the space charge of the powder particles that are delivered by the air stream inside the recess. Since the field lines from the discharge electrode will follow the path of least resistance to the leading edges of the recess, there is rapid
development of field strength in those areas. This will generate some positive ions, which will reduce the charge strength of those particles that pass the edges and continue into the recess. When this happens the cumulative space charge of particles that pass the leading edges of the Faraday area is not sufficient to cause powder to be attracted to the metal surface. This problem is directly related to the build up of free ions at the part surface. The trouble with inside corner penetration is much more difficult in situations where the part is poorly grounded. Many coaters do not check the ground of the part on regular basis. Ground checks should be a routine part of the daily operation of powder system. Most corona guns provide a negative charge. The powder particle enters the gun in a neutral condition and the free ions present in the corona field add additional electrons to the powder particle. Following the nature of matter, the particles are attracted to a ground source to discharge these electrons and regain neutrality. This is what causes the powder to cling to the workpiece.

The phases in the charging sequence of a negative charging corona
gun are:

• high voltage is supplied to the electrode at the gun tip
• the concentrated voltage creates an electric field
• the electric field causes ionization of the air
• the ionized air generates a corona
• the corona emits electrons
• the electrons collect on oxygen molecules to form negative ions
• these ions follow field lines established by the voltage discharge
• the powder particles distort the field around them
• the distorted field lines direct the ions to the powder particles
• as the ions collide with the powder particles the electrons are
transferred, providing a negative charge to the particles.

The success of the process is dependent on many variables. Charging is most strongly affected by field strength, particle size and shape, and the time that the particle spends in the charging area. An individual powder particle has very little mass. Some particles do not charge and some are influenced by airflow and other forces. But many of the particles will charge and seek ground. For good transfer efficiency, it is essential that the target part be the most prominent ground in the discharge area. 

Most powder materials are strong dielectrics. Once they are charged, the charge will not bleed off quickly. As the powder particles reach the grounded surface, they induce a charge of equal value and opposite polarity on the inside of the metal. Electrons inside the metal will vacate the area, leaving a positive charge that attracts the negatively charged powder material. This charge in the metal is commonly called “mirror charge.” The opposite charges attract each other and hold the powder particle to the metal surface. They also generate another electric field between them. A larger powder particle with higher charge will contribute to a stronger electric field between itself and the surface part surface.

Larger powder particles typically build more charge than smaller particles. As they build up on the surface they may create resistance to the deposition of smaller particles with a weaker charge. This is one of the factors that can contribute to “orange peel,” the slightly textured
look of a thick powder film after curing. This will be particularly apparent if the powder does not stay in the flow cycle long enough to help the film level out.

Back Ionization

As powder is applied to the surface of the metal, the strength of the electric field inside the layer of material will increase. As the number of charged particles increases on the surface, the negative charge in the powder film and the positive “mirror charge ” inside the metal increase, causing an increase in the strength of the electric field inside the layer of powder coating. As the application of powder continues, the strength of the electric field may build to a point where it will begin to ionize the air trapped between the powder particles. This will cause
an effect very similar to the corona field at the gun tip. Stray electrons will accelerate in the electric field and split air molecules, generating a large number of negative electrons and positive ions. The negative electrons will tend to attract to the positive ground, while the positive ions will try to make their way out of the powder film, towards the negative electrode at the gun tip. 

This intense build up of an electric field at the surface of the part creates small sparks that shoot up through the powder layer. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as back ionization. This repelling force forms micro craters on the powder surface, commonly referred to as “stars.” Also, as the positive ions travel along the force lines toward the gun electrode, they collide with negatively charged powder particles, neutralizing them, contributing to the self limiting
characteristics of electrostatic application and reducing transfer efficiency.


   To be continued....  

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