India Powder Coating  
      IPC-E Newsletter: March  2004  
  Welcome to the March edition of the IPC e-newsletter.

This edition of the newsletter contains:

News features.
The Powder Coating Manual (Part 26)
Exhibitions and Conferences in March  2004 and April 2004

If you have information you would like to have included in this newsletter, please contact the moderator using the details given at the end of each newsletter.

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    News Features      

Two-digit growth of Indian paint industry forcasted
Coatings Flash - February 16, 2004
According to Ashok Saini, Vice President of Special Projects of Goodlass Nerolac Paints Ltd., the present growth of India's paint industry should be higher than 6-7%, reported by "Coatings Flash". "With growth of 10% reported for Asian Paints, 17% for Goodlass Nerolac, 14% for Berger, 13% for ICI, 12% for Shalimar (estimated) and considering -10% for others as will include J&N and Snowcem India, the growth could not be less than 10-11%" Saini said. He added: "The Indian Paint Industry is riding high on the growth in the housing sector and in automobile".

Berger Paints in 1:2 bonus issue plan 
January 31, 2004 
Berger Paints today said it will come out with a bonus issue for its existing shareholders in the ratio of one share for every two shares held. 

The company board, which met today, approved the bonus issue subject to the consent of the members at an extraordinary general meeting to be held on March 8, 2004. 

The share price of Berger Paints rose by Rs 4.40 or 2.35 per cent on the National Stock Exchange even as the Nifty slipped by 1.85 per cent. <more>

Minor fire breaks out at Patancheru Plants of Asian Paints
Source: IRIS (23 February 2004)

Asian Paints India Ltd has informed BSE, that a minor fire broke out in the Resin House at one of the company`s plants situated at Patancheru on the night of February 20, 2004. The fire was brought under control immediately. <more>

PPG, Kansai Paint in Talks Regarding Possible Launch of Automotive-Market Alliance
[Insider News] February 23, 2004 Issue
PPG Industries Inc. and Kansai Paint of Japan announced the signing of a non-binding memorandum of understanding and said they have  entered into negotiations aimed at the launch of an alliance that  would target the global automotive OEM market.

PPG said that under the alliance, the two companies would set up  marketing and sales operations initially in North America and Europe  targeting Japanese automotive OEM companies. The two companies would  subsequently launch marketing and sales operations in Shanghai,  China, and later in other Asian countries to supply the region's  automotive OEM customers.

PPG, a major global producer of automotive and other transportation  coatings, provided no other details of the discussions. Kansai  Paint, headquartered in Osaka, Japan, manufactures a range of paint  and coatings products sold to the domestic Japanese market and  elsewhere in Asia.

Price Increase
DuPont Titanium Technologies announced a 5¢/lb. price increase
[Insider News] February 23, 2004 Issue
DuPont Titanium Technologies announced a 5¢/lb. price increase for all Ti-Pure titanium dioxide (TiO2) grades, effective March 15 in the United States. A price increase of 6¢/lb. was announced for Canada. The company said the increase is being announced subsequent to the recent implementation of a 3¢/lb. price hike announced in October 2003. The company said the new price increase is based  on "current improving economic conditions, strong TiO2 global demand and recent growth in U.S. manufacturing, which support near-term U.S. economic growth and worldwide recovery." DuPont, the world's largest TiO2 supplier, said price increases in other regional markets will be announced in those local regions.

Huntsman Tioxide also announced a 5¢/lb. price increase for TiO2 pigments in the United States and a 6¢/lb. price increase in Canada, effective March 15 or as contracts allow.
Dow Announces Price Increases for Epoxy Resins in Asia Pacific and Middle East, Africa and the Indian Subcontinent (MEAF) 

The Epoxy Products and Intermediates business of The Dow Chemical Company is increasing the prices of its epoxy resins in Asia Pacific and Middle East, Africa and the Indian subcontinent (MEAF). Effective April 1, 2004, Dow will increase the price of its epoxy resins by the following amounts in Asia Pacific and MEAF:
Product, Series, Increase 
Liquid Epoxy Resins, D.E.R.* 300 series, $200 USD per metric ton 
Solid Epoxy Resins, D.E.R. 600 series, $200 USD per metric ton 
Solid Solution Epoxy Resins, D.E.R. 600 series, $150 USD per metric ton 
Brominated Epoxy Resins, D.E.R. 500 series, $150 USD per metric ton 

The price increases listed above refer to standard grades. Other specialty resin price increases will vary depending on grade. All other terms and conditions of sale remain unchanged. For more information about the full epoxy product range from Dow, please visit 

Best-Practice Award" for the most innovative concept for surface technology
Coatings Flash - February 16, 2004
On April 22, 2004 a jury consisting of Vincentz Network and its partners CEPE, DFO and EGL will be awarding the "Best-Practice Award" for the most innovative congress papers. When making its selection, the jury will put particular emphasis on the practical application on the topic for users in combination with the most innovative concept. The International Coater's Congress (ICC) will take place on April 22 - 23, 2004 during the SURFACETECHNOLOGY plus POWDER COATING EUROPE at the Convention Centre (CC) in Hanover, Germany. As the congress consists of two parts - powder coating and liquid coating - one concept of every topic will be awarded. Aim of this international award for surface technology is to facilitate the information exchange about new technologies and concepts among end users. The prize package includes an exclusive, independent and specialist coaching, books, a valuable voucher for a seminar and prize money. 
Contact: Vincentz Network, Hanover, Maice Sandmann, Tel. +49 511 9910-273, Fax: +49 511 991

Akzo Nobel to Build Two Powder Coating Factories in China 

Akzo Nobel have announced their intention to build another two powder coating factories in China this year. The new factories will be built in Langfong (between Beijing and Tianjin) and Guangdong.

They have identified China as being the fastest growing powder coatings market in the world are continuing efforts to remain the leader in the market.

The construction of the two factories follows on from recent acquisitions and growth in the area, and will better allow them to serve their customers which are involved in producing products for the domestic and export markets. Such products include metal furniture and electrical appliances.

Akzo Nobel 20031 net income 9% below last year, net debt down EUR 800 million

Arnhem, the Netherlands, February 3, 2004 - Akzo Nobel, the international pharmaceuticals, coatings and chemicals company, reports net income1 of EUR 811 million (-9%). An unchanged dividend of EUR 1.20 will be proposed to shareholders.

Akzo Nobel 2003 net income 9 % below last year
Coatings Flash - February 09, 2004
Akzo Nobel reports net income of EUR 811 million (-9%) in 2003. Commenting on the results, CEO Hans Wijers said: "This was a challenging year, but we have more than delivered on our promises. Earnings were slightly better than expected. We defended profit margins and slashed debt levels." The Coatings division achieved autonomous growth of 3%, which was more than offset by the negative impact from currencies and pensions. Cost reduction at operations located in mature markets was again stepped up last year. "Restructuring resulted in solid overall performance despite difficult economic circumstances," Wijers said. "On the other hand, we are actively investing in growth opportunities in emerging markets in Asia-Pacific, which now generates 14% of our worldwide Coatings sales. Balancing the mature and new markets will be our main challenge in the coming years." Marine & Protective Coatings was again a star performer, while Powder Coatings and Industrial Finishes were strong. Decorative Coatings and Car Refinishes experienced tough business conditions. 

Akzo Nobel's Diosynth announces global restructuring of chemical synthesis operations

Arnhem / Oss, the Netherlands, February 20, 2004 - Diosynth, Akzo Nobel's pharmaceutical ingredients manufacturing business, has announced a restructuring of its chemical synthesis operations across the globe. In the face of declining demand, Diosynth is reducing its worldwide chemical synthesis capacity by closing its production site in Mexico and scaling back facilities in the Netherlands. Last month a start was already made with a reduction of production capacity at Diosynth's Buckhaven (Scotland) site. Workforce reductions will directly affect a combined total of approximately 350 employees <more>

DuPont: marketing and sales network for specialty colorants and additives 
Coatings Flash - February 23, 2004
DuPont recently announced the establishment of a worldwide marketing and sales network to expand the availability of its custom liquid colorants and fine particle dispersions. The network will provide customers with a range of individualized services from initial development through ongoing manufacture. 
Van Horn, Metz & Company, Inc. will serve the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States and Chemical Distributors, Inc. will offer products and services in the Northwest. In the coming months, DuPont will add more organizations to cover the remainder of the United States, Europe, and Asia. 

Ciba: strong cash flow
Coatings Flash - February 23, 2004
Ciba Specialty Chemicals announced results geared to strengthen the operational and financial position of the company. Core to this was a free cash flow of CHF 728 million, exceeding the already high level of 2002. This was achieved through a concerted company-wide effort during the fourth quarter of 2003, which led to a significant reduction in net current operating assets. Sales reached 2002 levels in local currencies, despite volatile market conditions and a sluggish global economy. Sales were particularly high in the Asia-Pacific region, with the China region growing by 15 percent in local currencies (flat in Swiss francs). Due to the strengthening of the Swiss franc, Group-wide sales in 2003 declined to CHF 6.646 billion and were 6 percent below last year.. 
Profitability was strongly impacted by adverse currency effects. In addition, the net current assets reduction program required temporary shutdowns of a number of plants. Cost controls and hiring restrictions helped to keep administrative expenses flat in local currencies. A series of additional actions were also undertaken, which provide the basis for a more streamlined and efficient organization. For the full year, operating income totaled CHF 571 million (8.6 percent of sales). EBITDA amounted to CHF 937 million (14.1 percent of sales). Net income totaled CHF 344 million. The high free cash flow generation helped to reduce net debt by 28 percent, to just over CHF 1 billion. 

Valmont Announces Fourth Quarter Earnings
Tuesday February 10, 5:30 pm ET 
OMAHA, Neb., Feb. 10 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- Valmont Industries, Inc. (NYSE: VMI - News), the leading global manufacturer of engineered support structures, coating services for infrastructure, and mechanized irrigation equipment for agriculture, reported fourth quarter 2003 net earnings of $8.1 million, or 33 cents per diluted share, versus fourth quarter 2002 net earnings of $8.5 million, or 34 cents per diluted share. Sales for the fourth quarter were $227 million compared with $216 million for the same period of 2002.<more>

Carbazole Violet Pigment 23

PRA News of the month - January 2004
Carbazole Violet Pigment 23, imported from China and India into the USA, will be hit by steep anti-dumping duties in a recent decision by the US International Trade Commission (ITC). The case was brought by the Sun Chemical Corp, itself a subsidiary of Dainippon Ink and Chemical of Japan, and the Nation Ford Chemical Co. Sun Chemical produces more than half of the violet 23 manufactured in the USA, while Nation Ford Chemical (NFC) supplies all of its production to Sun. Violet 23 is used to redden blue pigments in paints, printing inks, textiles and plastics. In their petition Sun

DuPont increases equity position in Chinese joint ventures
Coatings Flash - February 09, 2004
DuPont has increased its equity position in the DuPont Red Lion - Beijing joint venture to 76 percent from 60 percent. The joint venture in Beijing was initially formed in 1992. DuPont also acquired 100 percent ownership of its other DuPont Red Lion joint venture in Changchun, China, by purchasing the remaining 40 percent interest held by Red Lion. "By increasing our equity position for coatings supply in China, DuPont will be better able to meet the growth objectives of the Chinese automotive industry with the latest technology to meet worldwide expectations for aesthetics, durability and environmental compliance," said Marty M. McQuade, vice president and general manager for the automotive OEM coatings unit of DuPont Performance Coatings, DuPont Herberts Automotive Systems. 
"To further strengthen our capabilities in China to provide our customers with world-class services and locally manufactured products, we will use this base to invest further in additional manufacturing and technical service capabilities," McQuade said. Current coatings manufacturing in Beijing will relocate to new facilities in a Beijing industrial zone, starting operations by the end of 2005. The new facility will include a technical center to allow efficient testing and adaptation of individual coating products to quickly respond to customer requirements. 

BASF New Corporate Logo 
December 10, 2003

Starting in March 2004, BASF will be changing the way it looks. Important components of the changed corporate design are the new colors and design elements as well as a new logo.

The new corporate logo is based on the well-known letters "BASF, which stand for tradition and the continuation of a clear strategy. These are now preceded by two matching squares. "They represent partnership and collaboration to ensure mutual success," said Dr. Jürgen Hambrecht,
Chairman of the Board of Executive Directors of BASF Aktiengesellschaft. "One square complements the other, and together the two form a whole." The logo is completed by a claim: "The Chemical Company." Hambrecht explained: "With this claim, we make clear what we are proud of: what we are and want to remain" the world’s leading chemical company." But the seven previous versions of the new logo have also set signals throughout the company’s 138-year history. As a glance back over the years shows, they are each typical of the era in which they were created. In 1873, eight years after BASF was founded, the company’s first merger prompted the creation of logo number one. The left-hand side of the double shield shows the Stuttgart horse "it symbolizes the fusion of the "Badische Anilin- & Sodafabrik" with the Stuttgart firms of Rudolph Knosp and Heinrich
Siegle. The right-hand side shows the Bavarian lion holding a shield with the coat-of-arms of the City of Ludwigshafen, which at that time belonged to the Kingdom of Bavaria.

This logo was replaced in 1922 by a more simple oval, which, however, was only used for fertilizers. Concrete business interests at BASF led to the development of this minimalist design. The "BASF egg" was an instant signal of top quality products for dealers, suppliers and customers. With the founding of I.G. Farbenindustrie in 1925, the I.G. logo was used to represent all the companies involved. In 1952, BASF returned briefly to its traditional trademarks: The horse and the lion again stood for BASF and the abbreviation appeared once more " this time as a crown above the shield. In 1953, the company developed a logo consisting only of the four letters. The old "BASF egg" of 1922 also formed the basis for another logo that was used in parallel from 1955 onward. This version, adorned with ears of wheat, was again solely used for fertilizers and crop protection products. 1967 saw the birth of the "briquette." That, at least, was how BASF employees interpreted the new logo of white letters on a black block, which 
was used throughout the 1970s until the mid-1980s. This was the precursor of the version used from 1985 onward, which forms the basis for the current logo.

Color Forecast: Silver stays at the fore 
Coatings Flash - February 09, 2004
Most cars in the world will continue to be silver in the next few years. The color itself, however, will change: instead of hard and metallic, the trend is going towards silver-white hues and special color effects in silver hues. As a whole, "automobile clothing" is becoming more colorful, so says BASF Coatings' most current prognosis. After close consultation with the designers of all automobile manufacturers in the respective regions, the color experts of BASF Coatings, Renate Weber (Europe), Jon Hall (North America), and Eiji Fujimori (Asia-Pacific) have presented their annual color trend forecast for future vehicle design. 

Artist welds scraps into sculptures  
Mike Robuck

DELTA - When looking at a heap of rusted metal, Larry Davidson sees art where most people see junk.

Ever since Larry Davidson moved back to Delta from Fort Collins in 1987 he's been making animals, devices and odd shapes out of rusted chunks of metal, springs or old farm equipment. The initial beauty may not be in the eye of the beholder, but eventually Davidson is able to turn a piece of metal into a piece of art. He makes snails out of chain links. A huge red tricycle got its front wheel from an old hay rake while large dinosaurs were constructed from an assortment of scraps.

"I had this asbestos shake cutter for a long time, and then one day I thought, 'Why that looks like a critter,'" Davidson said as he gestured to an otherworldly animal that gets its mouth from the jaws of the shake cutter. "I made that wiener dog out of an old spring. I make lots of dragonflies and herons; people like the dragonflies, coyotes and herons."

Davidson sold his first work, a 25-foot, three-dimensional dinosaur that took a year of off-and-on work to construct, to the city of Grand Junction for $10,000. His dinosaurs are also found in several locations throughout Delta, and a sunflower he made is at Fourth and Meeker.

"They can cost anywhere from $100 to $10,000," he said about his work. "People stop in all the time to look at stuff. I do some commission stuff, but mostly I just do what pops into my mind. I kind of like some stuff after living with it for a while. Sometimes I sell it and sometimes I don't."

Davidson's Pegasus Studios is located on 38 acres right outside of Delta on the south side of U.S. 50 headed toward Grand Junction. It was land that was owned by his grandfather, and Davidson was born in the house he now lives in. Davidson, 65, walks around his yard with his mostly gray hair pulled back in a ponytail wearing several bracelets on his wrist, a baseball hat and sunglasses as he points out the art potential of seemingly innocuous metal objects.

"My wife (Gayle) used to call all of this junk, but after seeing what I could do with it she started calling it stuff," he said. "I collect all kinds of stuff, but I'll use it someday. If I don't there's going to be one heck of an auction here after I cash out."

Davidson decided to take a welding class in Fort Collins after he couldn't get a broken part fixed. From there he transitioned into wood-burning stoves, ornamental fences and other "functional art" before he made his first dinosaur.

"See that adobe knoll over there?" he asked as he pointed across the highway. "I'd love to put a dinosaur on top of one of those suckers. Wouldn't that be something if people driving along the road looked over there and saw a dinosaur on top of one of those knolls?"

Davidson teaches GED courses in Delta for half a day five days a week, so he doesn't get to his artwork until the afternoon on most days.

He's always on the lookout for more metal.

"I'm always scrounging, always sniffing," he said. "Recla Metals is my favorite place to shop. I get scrap from farm auctions, or people tell me I can come by and get it. The problem with some of it is moving it. People come by and give me stuff. I like curved shapes or pieces with angles on them."

Davidson's not sure what his next project will be, but he's wanted to build a 10-foot tall Tin Man from "The Wizard of Oz" for quite some time.

"I've got a little one that an old guy from Cedaredge made out of tin cans, but I want to make one out of big pieces of pipe so it will be articulated," he said.

Davidson painted some of his art objects, until he discovered the joy of powder-coating them at C&R Kustom Powder Koating in Delta.

"Me and a friend were taking everything in there to get powder-coated," Davidson said. "Powder coating is like talcum but then it's magnetically charged in an oven. The color doesn't wear off like paint does."

Davidson pointed to a bizarre man-like sculpture that sits outside of his cluttered shop awaiting its appointment at the powder coating shop. The sculpture has a barrel chest, large goggle eyes and several antennae sticking out of its head.

"My wife calls him 'Ant Man,' but I call him 'The Sentinel,'" Davidson said. "I haven't had him out by the road for two or three years, but once I get him powder-coated he'll stay out there."

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April 22-23, 2004
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    Exhibitions, Seminars, Course, Lectures  

New Materials and Coatings for the Automotive Industry
March 1 - 2, 2004 
Conference; Munich/Germany 
More Information from, MSTI, P. O. Box 1050, 65836 Sulzbach/Ts, Germany
Fax: +49 6196 585-485, ,  

Applied Rheology for the Coatings Industry
March 1 - 1, 2004 
Training Course; Teddington/Great Britain
More Information from, Paint Research Association, 8 Waldegrave Road,Teddington
Middlesex TW11 8LD, Great Britain, Fax: +44 20 8943 4705, ,  

March 1 - 4, 2004 
Exhibition, Conference; Moscow/Russia
More Information from, Maxima International Exhibitions, Profsoyuznaya Str., 3 of. 410
117036 Moscow, Russia , Fax: +7 (095) 124-7060,

Principles of Waterborne Coatings
March 8 - 9, 2004 
Training Course; Teddington/Great Britain
More Information from: Paint Research Association

8-11 March 2004, Cobo Center, Detroit, MI, USA
For further information, go to:

March 8 - 11, 2004 
Exhibition; Paris/France
More Information from, Idexpo, 58, bd Paul Vaillant Couturier, 94246 L`Hay Les Roses Cedex, France, Fax: +33 (1) 46 65 82 45, ,  

Middle East Coatings Show 2004
March 9 - 10, 2004 
Exhibition, Congress; Dubai/United Arab Emirates
More Information from, dmg world media (uk) ltd, Queensway House, 2 Queensway
Redhill, RH1 1QS Surrey, Great Britain , Fax: +44 (1737) 85 50 34 ,  

Introduction to Coatings Science
March 15 - 18, 2004 
Course; Hattiesburg/USA
More Information from, The University of Southern Mississippi, Polymer Science Research Center
Box 10076, 39406-0076 Hattiesburg, MS, USA , Fax: +1 601 266-5504,,  

Practical Emulsion Polymerization Technology
March 15 - 18, 2004 
Seminar; Hattiesburg/USA
More Information from, The University of Southern Mississippi, Polymer Science Research Center, Deborah Witherby, P. O. Box 10076, 39406-0076 Hattiesburg, MS
USA, Fax: +1 601 266 5504, , 

Paint Defect Analysis Workshop
March 16 - December 18, 2004 
Workshop; London, Ontario/Canada 
More Information from, Paint Performance Consulting, 35585 Pound Road
Richmond, 48062 Michigan, USA, Fax: +1 586 727-27 24,

Powtech 2004/ExploRisk 2004
March 16 - 18, 2004 
Exhibition; Nuremberg/Germany
More Information from, Nürnberg Messe GmbH, Messezentrum, 90471 Nürnberg, Germany, Fax: +49 911 86 06-82 56, ,  

Coatings and Paint Technology Composition and Application Fundamentals
March 16 - 18, 2004 
Course; Ypsilanti
More Information from, Coatings Research Institute - Eastern Michigan University
430 W. Forest, MI 48197 Ypsilanti, USA, Fax: +1 734 4830085, 

European Coatings Conference:
Polyurethanes for High Performance Coatings III
March 18 - 19, 2004 
Congress; Berlin/Germany 
More Information from, Vincentz Network, P.O. Box 6247, 30062 Hannover, Germany
Fax: +49 (511) 99 10-279, ,

SITS 2004 - The Surface Treatments and Coatings Trade Exhibition
March 22 - 26, 2004 
Exhibition; Paris/France 
More Information from, Exposium, Stéphanie Collot, Paris, France, Fax: +33 1 49 68 54 84,  

What is Paint?
March 22, 2004 
Training Course; Teddington/Great Britain
More Information from, 
Paint Research Association

Powder Coating Technology
March 23 - 24, 2004 
Training Course; Teddington/Great Britain, 
More Information from, Paint Research Association
8 Waldegrave Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 8LD, Great Britain, Fax: +44 20 8943 4705   ,  

Iron Oxides for Colorant and Chemical Applications 2004
March 24 - 26, 2004 
Conference; Amsterdam/The Netherlands
More Information from, Intertech, Scott Stephenson, 19 Northbrook Drive, Portland, 04105 Maine
USA, Fax: +1 207 781 21 50, ,  

Colour Measurement & Colour Control
March 29 - 30, 2004 
Training Course; Teddington/Great Britain
More Information from,Paint Research Association
8 Waldegrave Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 8LD, Great Britain, Fax: +44 20 8943 4705, ,  

Rompaint 2004
March 30 - April 1, 2004 
Symposium, Exhibition; Bucharest/Romania
More Information from, ARTILAC, Theodor Pallady Av., 49A, 74585 Bucharest 3, Romania
Fax: +40 (21) 231 38 81, ,  

Waterborne Coatings
March 30 - April 1, 2004 
Course; Ypsilanti
More Information from, Coatings Research Institute, 430 W. Forest, MI 48197 Ypsilanti
USA, Fax: +1 734 483 0085,

Color Design and Technology
March 30 - April 1, 2004 
Course; Ypsilanti
More Information from, Coatings Research Institute - Eastern Michigan University
430 W. Forest, MI 48197 Ypsilanti, USA, Fax: +1 734 483 0085
, .  

28-31 March 2004, Hotel Arts, Barcelona, Spain Further information:

Advanced Colour Measurement & Colour Control
March 31 - April 1, 2004 
Training Course; Teddington/Great Britain
More Information from, Paint Research Association, 8 Waldegrave Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 8LD, Great Britain, Fax: +44 20 8943 4705
, ,   

19-21 April 2004, Aix-en-Provence, France
The French Association of Technicians of Paints, Varnishes, Printing Inks, 
Glues and Adhesives (AFTPVA) have issued a call for papers on the subject, 
'Can decorative and protective functions of coatings still be maintained 
while meeting the constraints of international regulations?'. For further 
information, please contact: AFTPVA at +, or 

14-16 April 2004, Disney's Coronado Springs Resort & Convention Center, 
Orlando, FLA, USA
For further information, go to: 

21-22 April 2004, Far Eastern Hotel, Taipei, Taiwan
For further information, contact Adrian Harrow, dng world media (uk) ltd, 44 
(0)1737 855284 or go to: 

21-22 April 2004, Dubai World Trade Centre, UAE
For further information, please go to: 

  Powder Coater’s Manual ------- Powder Delivery System (Part - 26)  
Back Ionization
As powder is applied to the surface of the metal, the strength of the electric field inside the layer of material will increase. As the number of charged particles increases on the surface, the negative charge in the powder film and the positive "mirror charge" inside the metal increase, causing an increase in the strength of the electric field inside the layer of powder coating. As the application of powder continues, the strength of the electric field may build to a point where it will begin to ionize the air trapped between the powder particles. This will cause an effect very similar to the corona field at the gun tip. Stray electrons will accelerate in the electric field and split air molecules, generating a large number of negative electrons and positive ions. The negative electrons will tend to attract to the positive ground, while the positive ions will try to make their way out of the powder film, towards the negative electrode at the gun tip.

This intense build up of an electric field at the surface of the part creates small sparks that shoot up through the powder layer. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as back ionization. This repelling force forms micro craters on the powder surface, commonly referred to as "stars." Also, as the positive ions travel along the force lines toward the gun electrode, they collide with negatively charged powder particles, neutralizing them, contributing to the self limiting characteristics of electrostatic application and reducing transfer efficiency. 

In picture the powder begins to deposit on the grounded surface. In picture number 2 the material thickness on the surface increases and so does the cumulative charge of the powder layer and the resulting mirror charge. This increase in these two charges will increase the strength of the electric field in between the powder layer and the metal surface.

As the powder continues to build on the surface the strength of the electric field inside the powder-coating layer will eventually become high enough to ionize air trapped between powder particles. When the air begins to ionize it will create the same atmosphere as the corona discharge from the gun tip, accelerating stray electrons in the electric field, splitting air molecules, and creating additional negative and positive ions. Because opposites attract, the negative ions will rush toward the relatively positive charge on the part surface and the positive ions will begin to move out of the powder layer toward the gun is negative electrode as shown in picture number 3. This intensive flow of ions within the powder layer will cause streamers to develop in the freshly applied powder coating. These streamers are like tiny bolts of lightning shooting up through the coating. The streamers carry positive ions out through the coating layer, causing disruption of the surface and neutralizing negatively charged particles. This intense disruption in the coating surface is called Back Ionization.

The forces associated with back ionization can drastically reduce transfer efficiency, contribute to orange peel, and create "starring," small craters in the coating surface.

A large number of free ions are present in the air between the gun and the part. Before the powder begins to develop on the surface there is low resistance to electrical conductivity and the path to ground is unobstructed. As the powder builds and insulates the surface it will
create resistance to ground. Free ions travel along the field lines and as they arrive at the surface they can contribute to rapid back ionization and difficulty with application into Faraday cage areas.

Electrostatic Wrap

As powder approaches the grounded part along the field lines, a portion of the material will be attracted to the back surface from a force that is commonly referred to as electrostatic wrap.
The "wrap" in a particular situation will depend on the charging efficiency and the airflow characteristics of the booth and the delivery equipment. Booth airflows must not be so aggressive that they interfere with electrostatic deposition and gun flows must not have enough velocity to blow powder past the part.


The high voltage can be supplied from an external source through a high voltage cable or increased inside the gun barrel by a multiplier. 

External Charging Gun

With an external charging gun, an electrostatic charge of 30-100 kV is generated by a high voltage stack located in the control panel and delivered through a high voltage cable to the electrode at the gun tip. The electrostatic charge on the electrode is usually negative polarity
and can be regulated in the level of kilo voltage by the electrostatic power source.

The level of electrostatic charge used depends on the shape of part and the powder being sprayed. Generally, surfaces that do not have much Faraday area (recesses and inside corners) should be coated at the highest possible voltage with the lowest possible airflow. Faraday areas will usually coat more successfully with lower voltage. The lower voltage reduces the tendency for repelling of powder particles in the inside corners.

All powders do not behave the same when subjected to electrostatic charge. For example, a typical polyester or polyester/epoxy hybrid may charge better than epoxy. Therefore, it may be necessary to reduce voltage or flow rates to control the film build or reduce back ionization with some powders. Particle size and distribution of the powder particle size range also affect thickness of the powder film. Position of the spray gun, length of spray time, level of electrostatic
charge and velocity and volume of the powder can control the film thickness.

Integral Power Source

With this type of gun the voltage is stepped up inside the gun barrel. A low volt signal is supplied to the gun from a DC power supply in the control panel through a low voltage cable to an oscillator. The signal from the oscillator is increased by a high voltage transformer to approximately 10 kV. This signal is stepped up to a range of 80 to 100 kV by the cascade multiplier in the barrel of the gun up. A blocking resistor in the gun barrel prevents discharge of stored energy in a single surge to provide safe operation and avoid surface defects.

Counter Electrode

A corona spray gun develops lines of force that extend from the charging electrode to the target part. The lines of force will influence the path of the powder and the resulting deposition. The lines of force tend to "connect" to the part at points that are easiest for voltage to
travel. On parts with irregular geometry, the lines of force will concentrate on the most prominent surfaces and avoid tight recesses or inside corners, the Faraday cage effect.

Corona guns can be adjusted to overcome Faraday cage areas but it is one of the most frequent issues that challenges powder coaters. One option in application technology that helps to reduce the impact of Faraday areas is a counter-electrode. This type of spray gun has an ionizing electrode and a counter-electrode. Most of the ions produced by the ionizing electrode are pulled to the counter-electrode, directing the lines of force away from the part. With no concentrated lines of force connecting to the part, the ability to penetrate into inside corners is improved.

The counter-electrode gun can produce consistent films and good penetration without excess thickness on complex shapes. The voltage for this gun is set at 35 to 40 kV and the useful current is 80 mA. Flow rates are generally low to ensure good charging, given the relatively short exposure to the corona field. As a result, the counter- electrode gun is best suited to lower volume applications where there is a need for penetration of Faraday areas while controlling thickness on flatter surfaces. Large amount of surface area would require
more guns than standard corona charging devices designed for higher output.

It is essential that the charging electrode be kept clean with all corona guns to be sure that the ion field is effectively charging the powder. With the counter-electrode gun it is important to keep both electrodes clean.

   To be continued....  

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