Home
 Powder Coating Equipment
 Conveyors
 Spray Booths
 Ovens
 Turnkey Systems
 
 Equipment
 Raw Material
 Air Compressors
 Dust Collection, Filters
 Pre treatment Chemical 
 Masking Products
 Powder Coating Units
 Powder Manufacturers
 Testing Equipment
 Testing Labs
 
 Associations
 Consultants
 Used/Surplus equipment
 Books Periodicals
 Jobs/Appointments

 


 
European Coatings Conference
"MEDICAL COATINGS AND ADHESIVES"
April 10th - 11th 2008 / Berlin, Germany
To subscribe to our free monthly "IPC- e-newsletter", and read the current edition click the banner below.

_____________

To subscribe to our paid "ebiz" newsletter click the banner below.

Share your messages, problems, tips, queries, discussions etc. on our message board..
Note : Do not post messages of commercial nature.

You can promote your products and services through our website. Click here for various promotion options
 



 

 


 




APRIL 2008
 


Welcome to the April 2008 edition of the IPC e-newsletter. The IPC e newsletter is distributed free to more than 3000 people around the world.

This edition of the newsletter contains:

News features.

NEW "Safe Powder Coating Guidline"  from The European Council of the Paint, Printing Ink and Artists‘ Colours Industry (CEPE) ( Part1 )

Exhibitions and Conferences in March April 2008

If you have information you would like to have included in this newsletter, please contact the moderator using the details given at the end of each newsletter. While we have used our best efforts in collecting and preparing the information on this newsletter, we do not assume, any liability for any loss or damage caused by errors or omissions, whether such errors or omissions resulted from negligence, accident or other causes. The user may use their own discretion while using the information.

If your e-mail program does not support HTML or if this e-newsletter does not appear correctly, please copy and paste the following URL in your web browser:

http://ipconweb.com/nom.htm 


Site Update
Add yourself to our database (NEW)

We have categorized our website into various sections like powder manufacturers, consultants, pre treatment chemicals etc.
There could be many more companies and indivisuals who are in the powder coating field but not listed anywhere in our website. Please help us to create a master database of this industry. Tell us about your company or yourself by filling up this form. It is in the testing mode. If you find any problem please let us know.


IPC Chat (NEW)
A lot of visitors to our website would like this facility. Instead of going through the lengthy process of sending an email, just type in a message on this chat window. You can either interact with other online visitors or just leave a message. Try this feature on the main page of India Powder Coating . Please avoid posting messages of commercial nature.


The ipc e newsletter is sent through yahoo groups. Do not reply to this email. If you want to send a feed back use the email ids given at the end of the newsletter.

 

 


IPC e newsletters now available on CD.
We often get requests for previous editions of the IPC e newsletter. On popular demands we have put together the past editions of the newsletter on a CD. This CD includes IPC e newsletters from 2001, 2002, 2003,  2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 . The CD is available against a processing fee of Rs 500/- or USD 16.00  only. (plus Courier charges). 
 

 

  News  

 

   Infomercial from AK Enterprises  
   
   

 EASY CLEAN



 

 


Compressed air coming from the compressor tank is contaminated with dirt, oil and moisture. To get these high filtering efficiency (up to 99.9%), we has specially designed a filter set, named “EASY CLEAN”.

Ours “EASY CLEAN” consists of Pre-Filter, Silica Gel Dryer, Activated Carbon Filter and Coalescing Filter Connected in series to form a single unit. This set gives filtering efficiency upto 99.9% by removing moisture and the oil in vapour form.

All Aluminum (extruded) body construction, with nitrile seal and transparent shatter proof polycarbonate bowl make it a versatile light weight unit. Metal bowls are available for higher working pressure and temperature. Plated/powder coated bodies look aesthetically appealing. Mounting brackets for wall/panel mounting are provided.

SCOPE OF SUPPLY

1. Pre Filter with Regulator
2. Silica Gel Dryer – for removal of moisture
3. Activated Carbon Filter – for removal of oil
4. Coalescing Filter
5. Air blow gun
6. Pressure gauge
7. “T” connectors
8. PU Pipe

“EASY CLEAN”

Pre-Filter with Regulator
The double-action filtration cyclone separation and residual separation gives “clean air” with minimum pressure drop. The Filter element used is sintered bronze or plastic. The standard filter element is 25 microns. It also regulates the incoming pressure. Self-relieving features of the filter-regulator allows “Bleed-off” at excessive back pressure.

Silica Gel Dryer
The Filtered air after passing through pre filter still has traces of moisture in the vapour form. This moisture in the vapour form is absorbed by the Silica Gel Dryer. The air coming out of Silica Gel Dryer is 99.99% moisture free. The Silica Gel used is indicative type. Upon absorption of moisture the color of Silica Gel changes from blue to pink. When Saturated Silica Gel can be regenerated very easily by putting it near heat source such as light bulb or oven. When Silica Gel is fully regenerated, the colour changes from pink to blue. The Silica Gel can be regenerated again over long period.

Activated Carbon Filter
The dry filtered air coming out of Silica Gel Dryer still contains oil vapours. These oil vapours are absorbed by the activated Carbon Filter. The Activated Carbon filter absorbs oil vapours particles less than 5 pm. When activated carbon filter is fully saturated with the oil, oil patches will show up on surface of filter element. It is then time to replace the activated carbon filter element.

Coalescing filter
Coalescing filter is final and removes the finer dust particles which might be present in the compressed air. The standard filter element is 5 microns sintered bronze or plastic.


AIR CLEANING SYSTEM

The importance of quality compressed air for powder coating is known to all powder coaters. General filter does not purify air completely, leading to acute problems such as malfunctioning of equipment, lesser & unsmooth powder flow, orange peel effect etc. Moreover, air dryers do also require high level filters. In order to obtain high filtering efficiency (upto 99.9%), we have specially designed a filter set “EASY CLEAN”. It consists of following:

a. Pre Filter cum Regulator (for removal of dust and fine particles)
b. Silica Gel Dryer (for removal of moisture)
c. Activated Carbon Filter (for removal of oil)
d. Coalescing Filter (for removal of finer dust particles and to fine the air)
e. All other accessories as required to connect one end to air compressor and another end to spray equipment

The above filters are connected in series to form a single unit. This set gives filtering efficiency up to 99.9% by removing moisture and the oil in vapour form. It comes as a comprehensive system and can be placed between any air compressor and powder spray equipment.

To know more about the above product and other products of our organization, please visit us at
www.powdercoatingtplant.com  , or contact us at

M/s. SHREE ELECTRO EQUIPMENTS
147A/1 Girish Ghosh Road
Ghusuri, Near Bajrangbali
Howrah – 711107, Kolkata, India
Tel : +91-33-26559543/32975401
Mobile : +91-9831060860/9331029106
Fax : +91-33-26550073
Email : shreecoat@satyam.net.in
Website: www.powdercoatingplant.com





 
   


 

 

   Infomercial from Mitsuba Systems  
   
   

 Sampling Cup for Powder Coaters



 

 
Sampling Cup for Powder Coaters

Sampling is now easy and time efficient process with the new Mitsuba sampling cup.

Mitsuba sampling cup is available in capacity of 500 gms. It can be fit with Mitsuba as well as with any other brand of gun. With sampling cup you have flexibility to use your gun as sampling gun as well as full scale production system.

Today’s powder coating set up needs flexible systems to deliver what the customer demands, when the customer demands it. Approval of coated samples form customer is crucial and an important step in any coating company. At present, a coater needs to clean entire hopper for coating even a small sample. And if the quantity is small, he needs to test the sample by putting powder pump directly in to the powder box. This method has high risk of irregular powder flow, which will result in rejection of the sample. Besides, this is time consuming and makes your shop floor dirty.

With Mitsuba sampling cup, coater can save time and money. To watch the video of the Sampling Cup in action please follow the link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AMfjlLBHKnc 

To know more about Mitsuba products please visit www.powdergun.com  or contact us at:

Mitsuba Systems (India) Pvt Ltd,
34/H, Laxmi Indl Estate,
New Link Road,
Andheri (W),
Mumbai - 400 053.
Tel: 2631 8633 /66924151/2/3.
Fax-66924154
Email: mitsuba@vsnl.com 
Website: www.powdergun.com





 
   

 

 

Infomercial from Vijay Enterprises Pvt. Ltd

Vijay Enterprises Pvt. Ltd.


Vijay Enterprises is a leading manufacture of powder coating materials (PCM) in India. VIJAY COAT today stands as a Reliable source of High Quality and Durable Powder Coating materials at very reasonable prices. Vijay's PCM find extensive application for industrial and other demanding applications. Vijay enterprises was incorporated in 1995 with a view to supplying quality PCMs to Indian industry. Vijay's manufacturing set up is equipped with best machines from M/s Buss AG Switzerland who are world's largest manufacturer of Powder Coating Machines. Vijay has now established itself and earned a name for its quality supplies and prompt delivery at very economic prices. VIJAY has multi-locational production facilities near Ahmedabad in western India and at Silvassa in the U T of Dadra & Nagar Haveli, 200 Kms off Mumbai. This makes it a competitive source of PCMs to all customers. 

Vijay Enterprises Pvt. Ltd.

Admin. Office :
103, Gita Bhavan, 1st Floor, Opp. Vijay Transport,
Narol Char Rasta, AHMEDABAD 382 405.
GUJARAT. INDIA.
Telephone: +91-79-2532 9057, 25329374,Fax: +91-79-2535 9481
Email: jayesh@icenet.net
web: vijay-powdercoat.com  


 

Job Opportunities
FREE
Often we receive emails with no contents, but a resume word document attachment.
This column could be of use for such people, those who are looking our for better prospects.
Use this space to publish your mini resume in the format  given in the adjacent column. You may or may not reveal your identity. Send us these details and we will put it this column
 
Name: Bharat Bhushan
Date of Birth: 1-1-1954 
Email : bbhushan2000@gmail.com
Link to resume: Bharat Bhushan
Name: MOHAMMED EL-SHERPENY
Date of Birth: 26 / 02 / 1983
Location Egypt
Current job: Geochemistry in Electrostatic Powder Coating.
Email : geochemistry_mohamed@yahoo.com
Link to resume: MOHAMMED EL-SHERPENY
Name: Ashish kumar Singh
Current job:Thin film deposition
Link to resume: Ashih kumar singh
Name: S.P.Pawde.
Current job:Powder Coating
Link to resume:S.P.Pawde.


 

IPC Classified
Your message here
You can reach thousands of people thorough our classified ads. Place your own classified text  ads. or messages  here Just for Rs 500 (USD 10) only

Contact the moderator for details
India Powder Coating
Vivek Soley
3, Lalaram Nagar, Indore, 452001 MP India
Phone 91 731 2492291
Mobile 9826297112
emails:   viveksoley@hotmail.com viveksoley@ipconweb.com , indiapowdercoating@yahoo.com
Dimetrics
Mfg. metal pretreatment chemicals

We are an ISO 9001:2000 certified company manufacturing pretreatment chemicals for powder coating of mild steel, aluminum, die casting material and galvanized sheets. We also manufacture paint/powder coating removers.

We also manufacture color anodizing chemicals. We have sufficient production capacity to give you prompt service.

Our Quality Assurance department is keeping a close check on all the incoming raw materials and outgoing finished products. We have efficient technical staff to give the best after sale service.

We devote good amount of efforts in R & D of new products and continuous improvement of existing products. Always there to give customers our best attention.

For further details contact:
Bhavesh Shah
Dimetrics
Gala No. 6, Stanley Compound, Kherani Road, Sakinaka, Mumbai-400 072
Telefax : 91-22-28509855 , Tel : 91-22-32941774
Email : dimetricschem@yahoo.co.in


World Paints Volume Market to Exceed 8.1 Billion Gallons, Value Market to Reach US$118.63 Billion by 2012, According to a New Report by Global Industry Analysts, Inc.

Paints are a group of emulsions that contain pigments suspended in liquid medium. Paints, which were primarily used for decorative and protective purposes, are being formulated to fulfill a range of applications. Paint composition ranges from environmentally friendly sound latex paints to chemically complex paints that find applications on assembly lines of automobile manufacturers.

San Jose, California (PRWEB) March 3, 2008 -- World Paints volume market is forecast to maintain a steady CAGR of 4.8% over the 2001-2010 period and exceed 8.1 billion gallons by 2010, while the value market, with a CAGR of 5.04% over the aforementioned period, is expected to reach US$118.8 billion by 2012. Asia-Pacific dominates the global Paints market, with a volume share estimated at 26.8% in 2007 and a value share estimated at 27.82% in that year. Asia-Pacific is also projected to emerge as the fastest growing Paints market in terms of volume sales, with a CAGR of 7% over 2003-2012.

With a volume share estimated at 37.50% in 2007, Architectural Paints dominate the global Paints market, while Industrial Paints are forecast to emerge as the fastest growing product category in terms of volume sales, with a CAGR of 6.97% over 2003-2012. <more>

Isamu Paint
Isamu Paint is turning its attention to other Asian countries in its strategy to grow its business of automotive refinish paints in emerging markets including Thailand and other neighbouring countries, in order to counteract stagnating Japanese demand. In addition, the Osaka-based company is considering the feasibility of establishing a production base in South Korea.

Isamu Paint has focused on the development of its overseas markets in recent years, collaborating with local manufacturers in Sri Lanka and Indonesia as well as opening its first overseas production facility in Thailand at the end of 2007, with local producer TOA Paint, for automotive refinish paints. (Source: Japan Chemical Week, 28 February 2008)


Lubricants for products to be powder coated
John Neale introduces a range of lubricants specifically for manufacturers who powder coat items after processes requiring liquid lubrication, that can avoid degreasing stages
For instance in the manufacture of aluminium doors, windows, and commercial and domestic furniture various lubricants maybe required for drilling, cutting and bending. It can be very advantageous to utilize a lubricant which allows components to proceed direct to powder coating without building in an additional degreasing process.

The avoidance of a degreasing operation both offers cost savings on cleaning plant, energy and chemicals as well as streamlining the process.

Lubricant VPN-60 is a completely vanishing minimal lubricant for cutting, routing and drilling.

Lubricant 104 is a minimal lubricant which is totally hazard-free, bio-degradable and has a high level of renewable ingredients.

Both these lubricants can allow for powder coating direct from the process requiring lubrication.

Powder coaters can investigate these lubricants as a way of moving away from TCE (Trike) degreasing and complying with the Solvent Emissions Directive, SED. <more>


Cloverdale Paint Inc
Cloverdale Paint Inc, based in British Columbia, Canada, has acquired Guertin Coatings of Manitoba, Canada. Guertin Coatings produces liquid and powder industrial coatings, resins, sealants and adhesives in a 7,000 m2 manufacturing facility at Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Cloverdale Paint operates manufacturing plants in Surrey, Portland, Winnipeg, Edmonton and Calgary both directly and through its subsidiaries; Fargo Paint Inc and Rodda Paint.
Cloverdale intends to operate Guertin as a separate entity with existing management and to maintain Guertin’s products, distribution, brands and Winnipeg manufacturing facility. (Source: Winnipeg Free Press, 5 March 2008

Akzo Nobel CEO rules out large M&A in 2008; bolt-on acquisitions possible
AMSTERDAM (Thomson Financial) - Akzo Nobel NV chief executive officer Hans Wijers told broadcaster CNBC that the Dutch coatings and chemicals group is not contemplating any large acquisitions in 2008, but said smaller add-on acquisitions could emerge.

But the CEO also reiterated that Akzo Nobel (nasdaq: AKZOY - news - people ) will concentrate its energies in 2008 on integrating the recently-acquired Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI).

'We are not contemplating any deal of the magnitude of ICI. We are focusing on the ICI integration,' Wijers told CNBC in an interview.<more>

Laser Treatment for MDF
Researchers at WMG at the University of Warwick have devised a way of using a laser that transforms MDF giving it a surface finish that looks like some of the most expensive wood grains.

The "LaserCoat" research project in a collaborative research effort consisting of eight academic, research and commercial organisations and part-financed by the Technology Strategy Board.

University of Warwick WMG researcher Dr Ken Young said:

"MDF is a superb and highly versatile material. It's easy to work with and cheap. It is usually made from waste material so it is much kinder to the environment than using more real wood. But normally it looks rather dull in its raw state. Until now there has been no way to liven it up other than painting it."

"Using lasers to produce a wood grain in MDF could help bring a more natural quality into homes and businesses without the financial and environmental cost of having to use new wood."<more>

Jotun Unviels First Indian Facility.
Jotun has announced their first manufacturing facility in India. Located at Ranjangaon, near Pune. The plant has been set up with an investment of US$ 25 million and will have a capacity to produce up to 50 million litres of paint and 10,000 tonnes of powder coatings.<more>

 

 


 

  Seminar Events Exhibitions  



Professional Paint Formulation
1.4. - 2.4. 2008
Hampton/UK
PRA Coatings Technology Centre

Analytica 2008
1.4. - 4.4. 2008
Munich/Germany
Messe München GmbH

Radiation Curing Technology
7.4. - 9.4. 2008
Hampton/UK
PRA Coatings Technology Centre

ExpoCoating 2008
8.4. - 10.4. 2008
Moscow/Russia
Primexpo

European Coatings Conference: Medical Coatings and Adhesives
9.4. - 11.4. 2008
Berlin/Germany
Vincentz Network

Boya // Paint 2008
10.4. - 12.4. 2008
Istanbul/Turkey
interteks

Primus:Interfarba
15.4. - 18.4. 2008
Kiev/Ukraine
Primus Exhibition Group, Viktoria Shulgina

Asian Pacific and Korean Hazard Communication
15.4. - 17.4. 2008
Mainz/Germany
Akademie Modernes Management (AMM)

Emulsion Polymerization and Waterborne Coatings
22.4. - 24.4. 2008
Ypsilanti, MI/USA
Eastern Michigan University

Market Research in the Coatings Industry
22.4. 2008
Hampton/UK
PRA Coatings Technology Centre

Korean Coatings Show 2008
23.4. - 24.4. 2008
Seoul/Korea
The Coatings Group

Coatings for Wood & Wood Based Substrates
24.4. 2008
Hampton/UK
PRA Coatings Technology Centre Details ...

Color Technology
29.4. - 30.4. 2008
Ypsilanti, MI/USA
Eastern Michigan University

Principles and Practices of Coating Formulations
29.4. - 30.4. 2008
Ypsilanti, MI/USA
Eastern Michigan University

 

 

  Safe Powder Coating (Part 1)  
 Here is the first part of the "Safe Powder Coating Guideline" from the The European Council of the Paint, Printing Ink and Artists‘ Colours Industry (CEPE).  CEPE represents the interests of about 1100 paint and 75 printing ink and over 20 artists‘ colours companies at European level. It has 23 Member Associations and 4 Affiliated Associations in 21 countries, 14 Company Members as well as affiliated paint manufacturers in Poland, Romania, Russia and Turkey.

Participating companies to this Guide are :
Akzo Nobel Powder Coatings, BASF Coatings, Becker Powder Coatings, DuPont
Powder Coatings, IGP Pulvertechnik, INVER, Jotun Powder Coatings, Oxyplast
Belgium, PPG Industries, Rohm&Haas, Sigma Coatings, Tigerwerk, Teknos

Safe Powder Coating Guideline
7th Edition, 2005
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
2. Dust explosion and fire hazards
2.1 Causes
2.2 Prevention
3. Electrical hazards5
3.1 Causes
3.2 Prevention
4. Health Hazards
4.1 Causes
4.2 Prevention
5. Compressed Air
5.1 Causes
5.2 Prevention
6. Construction of Plant and Equipment
6.1 Full guidance.
6.2 The spraying facility location
6.3 Spray Booths.
6.4 Stoving Ovens.
6.5 Application Equipment.
6.6 Ventilation and ducting
6.7 Ventilation and powder collection system
Appendix

1. Introduction
Industrial thermosetting powder coatings are typically produced by blending  and extruding together resins, curing agents, pigments and additives. The resultant matrix is ground into fine discrete particles. Such powders are   applied to a substrate or workpiece via a pressurised spray application  system, complete with electrostatic charging of the powder coating to charge  the particles and effect a high level of transfer on to the work piece. 

Application can be via either fully automated or manual systems, with the  workpiece transported through a spray zone containing a number of guns and into a stoving oven via an overhead conveyor.

Air pressures in the order of 0.8-2.0 kPa (10-30 psi) and electrical potentials   in the order of 10-90 kV at a current between 1,5µA ( Tribo ) and 100 µA are typically employed.

Systems are designed to minimise the amount of overspray. Excess powder  is removed by exhaust extraction and collected for re-use or disposal. From the information in this Guide relating to safe working procedures, it is clear that there is a lower level of hazard when using powder coatings compared to conventional solvent-based paints. Dust clouds in air require 50-100 times the energy necessary to ignite a solvent vapour/air mixture, and are therefore inherently more difficult to ignite. Also powder mixtures in air need to be above a certain concentration, known as the lower explosion limit (LEL) before ignition or explosion can occur.

However, certain hazards do exist when using powders depending on  various factors. Precautions must be taken to avoid them, and these are referred to here as safe working procedures. If these are followed, any risk should be reduced to a minimum.

The main hazards involved in the electrostatic application of powder coatings  are:

(i) Dust explosion and fire

(ii) Electrical shock

(iii) Exposure to hazardous substances

(iv) Compressed air

2. Dust explosion and fire hazards
2.1 Causes
2.1.1 Powder coatings, being fine organic materials, can give rise to dust  explosions. A dust explosion may occur when both:
 
(i) the concentration of dust in the air is between the Lower Explosive  Limit (LEL) and Upper Explosion Limit (UEL).

and
(ii) a source of ignition of the required energy for the dust cloud is present. Such sources of ignition can include:

(a) hot surfaces or flames

(b) electrical discharges or sparks

(c) electrostatic discharges

2.1.2 A fire may occur when a layer of deposited powder coating or a cloud comes into contact with an ignition source such as those listed in 2.11 (ii) above. A fire within the powder coating system may result in a dust explosion if either burning particles are allowed to enter  confined sections of equipment, such as dust collectors, or if burning dust deposits are disturbed.

2.2 Prevention of powder dust explosion
2.2.1 An explosion can be prevented if both or either of the conditions  shown in 2.1.1 are avoided. Powder coating systems should be designed to prevent both conditions occurring, but due to the difficulty of totally eliminating sources of ignition, more reliance should be  placed on the prevention of explosive concentrations of powder. This can be achieved by ensuring that the powder in air concentration is kept below 50% of the LEL.

2.2.2 Determined LELs on the range of typical powder coatings lie between 20  g/m3 and 70 g/m3 dependent on the specific chemical and physical properties.

It is recommended that a twofold safety margin is applied to  maximum dust concentrations. Spray booths and associated equipment such as dust collectors, should, therefore, be designed
and constructed to ensure that dust concentrations never exceed 10  g/m3. Dust concentrations should be reduced as far below this value as is reasonably practicable. Reference should be made to Pr EN 12981 and Pr EN 50177 for information on the design and operation  of booths and spray equipment.

2.2.3 The application unit should be clearly marked with the capacity of the extraction unit and the maximum number and capacity of the spray guns. The configuration of the unit and coating powder usage should  be regularly checked against stated values to ensure that airborne
concentrations do not exceed 10 g/m3

2.2.4 A regular maintenance and cleaning schedule should be introduced to prevent accumulation and build up of dusts. In the case of electrical equipment, build up of dusts can result in their ignition through overheating. The temperature of external surfaces, or surfaces liable to be exposed to dust, of electrical equipment should not exceed 270ºC. This value is 2/3 of the minimum ignition temperature.

2.2.5 The use of compressed air or dry brushing for cleaning up spills for cleaning down equipment should be avoided.  Suitably designed dust-tight vacuum cleaners to Standard IP6X/IP54 of EN60529, or wet brushing are preferred methods.

2.2.6 Smoking should be strictly prohibited and all sources of ignition, such as matches and lighters, should be excluded.
 
2.2.7 The principles of avoiding the creation of dust clouds  together with ignition sources are equally applicable to general handling and cleaning processes.

To be continued.........

 
 

 

  Feed Back  

Dear Sir or Madam
We write to you to introduce ourselves to you as a Chinese TGIC (1, 3, 5-Triglycidyl isocyanurate) supplier.
Thanks and your early reply will be most appreciated.
Best regards
Yang Zhihui
Hebei JIUPAI Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.
China


 
 


India Powder Coating
Vivek Soley
3, Lalaram Nagar, Indore, 452001 MP India
Phone 91 731 2492291
Mobile +91 9826297112
emails:    viveksoley@ipconweb.com
Alternative email viveksoley@hotmail.com  indiapowdercoating@yahoo.com, ipconweb@gmail.com


While we have used our best efforts in collecting and preparing the information on this website and newsletter, we do not assume, any liability for any loss or damage caused by errors or omissions, whether such errors or omissions resulted from negligence, accident or other causes. The user may use their own discretion while using the information.